Thursday, August 29, 2013

Bhojaraja's Champuramayanam




May Lord Vinayaka’s pair of feet bestow upon us wealth immensely- the feet which are praised by the sprouts of the Veda-tree (in the Upanishads), the feet which are intent upon stealing the luster of the lotuses, the feet which are equal to the thunder-bolts in destroying the mountains of obstacles, the feet which are in need of no other’s help (in performing all the above great deeds.) 1
Lord Vinayaka’s pair of feet
Bestow on us wealth immense—
Feet, the top-most sprouts of the Veda-tree,
Feet, on lotus-lustre-stealth inent,
Feet, thunder-bolts to the hindereing mounts’
Feet, no others help do need.
If strides along the higher spiritual path is possible only by following virtue, if the clear and correct understanding of the virtue can be attained only through the Vedas, and if the exposition of the Vedas is dependent upon the Brahmanas, then, where else, than those Brahmanas, can my salute fall? 2
If progress spiritual s by virtue alone.
If knowledge of virtue is by Vedas alone,
If ‘xposition of Vedas is by brahmins alone,
Where else tan on them my salute can fall.
The poetic melody of verses inter-spersed with prose touches the heart just as a song accompanied by instrumental music. Therefore, my tongue follows the same mixed style in order to delight the connoisseurs of poetry. 3
Poetic melody of verse and prose mixed
Like music vocal enchants with’nstrumental mixed;
My tongue, the same mixed style follows
For lovers of poesy, to heart’s delight.
I now somehow manage to give satisfaction to the scholars with bits of fame of Srirama, the scion of the Raghu race, sung by Valmiki. Are not people offering libations to their manes with the waters of Ganga, which was brought to earth by the efforts of Bhagiratha. 4
Venture I to delight the scholars somehow
Withbits of fame Valmiki sang of the Raghu-race-scion;
Don’t people to their manes libations pur with water
Of Ganga Bhagiratha’s efforts brought to earth.
Sage Valmiki, the foremost of the eloquent poets, after listening to the words of Narada, (i.e., the story of Rama) went to the river Tamasa to perform the rites of noon-- Tamasa which bestows merit and destroys sins and which is resorted to by sages. 5
Sage Valmiki, of poets eloquent foremost
Having heard the tale Narada hsd yold,
Noon-rites to perform to Tamasa went—
Tamasa, the sin-destroyer, the merit-bestower—
Tamasa, river holy to which great sages resrt to.
There, Valmiki saw a hunter killing the male partner of a pair of herons, which is engaged in lovemaking. Seeing it, he was deeply moved by compassion. Then these words came out of his lotus-like mouth spontaneously in the form of a verse. 6
Wicked fowler, thou hast slain
Of a pair, a love intoxicated heron;
Wherefore, I curse thee, thou shall not remain,
Accursed soul, for years aeon.
(O Rama, the incarnation of Vishnu, the indweller and the abode of Lakshmi, You will get fame for eternal years because you have killed the lustful Ravana, one of the demon couple.) 7
The sage Valmiki returned to his hermitage after performing the rites prescribed at noon. 8
Then Brahma, the lotus-born, appeared before Valmiki, as if intolerant of Saraswati, his wife, dangling with another man.9
Sage Valmiki was delighted and worshiped Brahma in accordance with the scriptures. Brahma enjoined Valmiki to compose the story of Rama as was heard (from the divine sage Narada) in the same metre in which Saraswati (the first verse) came out of him as if to manifest her own self in the mortal world also. After advising thus, he disappeared. 10
Then the sage Valmiki, the guide (the path shower) to the nectarine styles, saw with mystic eye the story of Rama clearly as a berry in one’s own palm, and composed the meritorious and sweet epic poem called Ramayana, according to the order of (Lotus-born) Brahma. 11
Then, the sage Valmiki became worried as to who is capable of propagating that epic poem. 12
Two songsters named Kusa and Lava appeared before him. They were well versed, sweet-voiced, skilful, marked with the auspicious kingly characteristics and equal to each other. 13
Sage Valmiki received them and taught them his composition. 14
Rama saw them singing here and there. He was very much delighted and got them brought to his palace. He sat along with his brothers and asked them to sing his own story. 15
The two boys, the pupils of the sage, began to sing systematically the story of Rama, the hero of Raghuvamsa, composed in poetic diction, thus: 16
There is a great city named Ayodhya in the kingdom of Kosala, the city that gives delight to the eyes of the people. The kings of Raghu race who have driven away the demons from their territories ruled it. 17
It was ruled by king Dasaratha who had the honour of sharing the throne of Indra when he (Dasaratha) helped him (Indra) in defeating the demons. He enjoyed the fragrance of the nectar-laden divine Mandara flowers, (i.e., the pleasures of heaven) on earth itself. 18
Dasaratha, pining from childlessness, desired to perform the Horse sacrifice to beget children and consulted his ministers. Sumantra, one of the ministers, became elated and related to the King an ancient incident when sage Sanatkumara foretold that Dasaratha would definitely have sons by the grace of sage Rsyasringa, son of Vibhandaka. He also told the story of how Rsyasringa saved the kingdom of Anga from drought. 19
The king became relieved of his anguish with the words of Sumantra. He brought that kingly sage along with his family and performed the horse sacrifice on the banks of the river Sarayu according to the instructions of the sage Vasishta. After it, he started performing the child-giving sacrifice as ordained. 20
At that very time, led by Indra, all the angels who had descended to the earth to receive their portions of the oblations, related to the four-faced Brahma their being scorched by the severe heat of the summer i.e., the valour of the ten-faced Ravana. Brahma told them that Vishnu; the wielder of the Sarnga bow, alone is their saviour. Then along with Brahma, they reached the milky ocean and praised the Lord Vishnu in several ways. 21
There, they found in Vaikuntha, Lord Vishnu, the destroyer of miseries of all the worlds, Vishnu who is adorned with the lightning-like Lakshmi, Vishnu who is a like a dark cloud filled with water in the form of kindness for the chataka birds in the form of sages. 22
The Lord was lying on the serpent -bed, white as silk and was enjoying a mystic sleeping posture, which is but all- attentive in the protection of the worlds. He was, by the flashes of lustre of his body, making the depths of the milky ocean dark like the petals of the water lilies blossoming at moonrise. 23
He was the one who was looked upon with awe when he took care to adopt a mixture of human form with that of a lion, the lustre of whose tusks (teeth) made the world bright, in order to shatter simultaneously the great misery
of Prahlada, the pride of the demons, the pillar and the chest of the enemy (Hiranyakasipu). 24
Salutations to Narayana. Salutations to the lotus-eyed. Salutes to the reducer of Bali’s wealth into nothingness. Salutes to the Supreme Lord whose navel is the birth- place of Brahma, the creator of the entire movable and the immovable. 25
Then all the angels, Indra etc., prostrated before the Lord, got up and made the quarters resound with their praises of him. Then the lotus-eyed Lord spoke clearly causing delight to them with the shower of rays of his eyes, which stole the beauty of the dark red lotuses. 26
Welcome to you, angels. Are you all happy? Is the wielder of the Vajrayudha able to destroy the pride of the demons? Are the policies of polity framed by Brihaspati’s intellect able enough to maintain the welfare of the city of the angels? 27
Hearing the Lord’s nectar-sweet words inquiring into their welfare, the assembly of the angels felt that their desires were almost fulfilled. They represented to him thus: 28
O Lord, how can anything ill befall on us who are protected by you? 29
There is the capital city of demons named Lanka, the riches of which are unattainable for the angels. The lustrous rays arising from the diamond-built palaces of that city make the three radiant ones, the sun, the moon and the fire, appear pale like lights at day time. 30
The ancient city has mountain-like ramparts. But a demon king named Ravana with his Sala tree-like hands has conquered it from Kubera and is presently ruling it. The demons are roaming about the worlds with wanton strides. 31
Their swords, like the tongues of his arm-serpents, swallow the moon-fame of the masters of the quarters. There is no other resort for his enemies except this God of Death Yama. 32
He worshipped this Brahma with much penance and got from him a boon unattainable by any other person. Because of it, the king of the demons made the whole world the target of his rule. 33
We have almost become his servants. So. 34
Whenever he roams about on top of his pleasure mountains along with his harem, the thousand-rayed sun God verily takes refuse in the valleys without emitting heat, lest he should be found fault with. 35
Whenever that Ravana resorts to the bath-house along with his attendants for taking rest after getting tired in hunting, this (one with hare-symbol) moon manages to create an unbroken flow of pure spring from the moon-stone-made vessels in the hands of the rows of female quartz statues carved nicely on the golden pillars of his bath-room. Thus he (Candra, the moon-god) becomes the recipient of his twenty kind glances for a moment- the glances, which are craved for, even by Indra himself as a token of his favour.36.
The wind-gods are not able even to move freely because of the fear of the falling down of the flowers already about to fall from the divine trees Mandara etc. These trees were brought by Ravana, the son of Pulastya, from Indra’s Nandana garden and planted in his palace-garden, The basins of them are made muddy by the flow of warm water from the pairs of lotus-eyes of the imprisoned angel- damsels and the golden pots in their lotus-hands.37.
These fire-gods, Garhapatya etc., have taken charge as the cooks in his house, as though to do justice to their popular name of ‘Hutavahas’, carriers of the oblations. 38
Feeling certain that no danger can come from any human; he got from Brahma boon of no death from all the rest. Emboldened by it, he has now subjugated the three worlds. His chest has become hard with the scars of wounds caused by the lance-like tusks of the quarter-elephants received playfully in encounters, just as an elephant ignores the strokes of the land-lotus flowers. He has subjugated the three worlds and ignores us, who belong to you. 39
Lord Madhusudana hearing the words of the multitude of the deities- 40
Spoke these words sweet as a stream of nectar, with a smile white as moonlight emanating from a mountain of sapphire. 41
“ That demon that has committed atrocities upon you can be killed even now. But, 42
“In order that the words of Brahma should not go futile and also to fulfil the desire of Indra’s friend, Dasaratha, who wants to have sons, I myself shall take human form on earth and kill him (Ravana).” Having said these words, He disappeared. 43
The assemblage of gods became very highly delighted, knowing that the misfortunes of the fourteen worlds have come to an end with the assurance given by the Lord Vishnu, and left the milky ocean. 44
Then Brahma told the deities. 45
“Now, you beget monkey and bear-formed children from the water-nymphs and other women to be of help to Lord Vishnu. 46
Long ago, one, by name Jambavan, was already born out of my yawning. ” 47
The deities did accordingly. 48
Then, an angelic deputy of Brahma (Prajapatya) rose from the sacrificial fire holding a vessel in his hands and gave a nectar-like Payasa, milk-rice food to Dasaratha, who was craving for children. 49
The king first gave half of the milk-rice food to Kausalya. He gave the other half, sweetened with his own love to Kaikeyi. The two fair-minded queens, considering the intention of their husband, voluntarily fulfilled the desire of Sumitra by portions of their respective half-shares. 50
The sacrifice being finished and the people dispersing off, Dasaratha, having got his desire fulfilled, returned from the banks of Sarayu to the city of Ayodhya resembling Indra’s city, Amaravati. 51.
Symptoms of pregnancy gradually became evident in the agreeably luminous queens by their removing of ornaments because of the feebleness of their limbs. 52
The stick-like slender waist of Kausalya became visible with the three folds (on the upper belly) disappearing and the navel pit losing its depth. 53
The frail-limbed lady’s belly gradually lost its similarity with the Banyan leaf (because of bulging) but was again comparable to it because of the primordial Person’s dwelling there as an embryo to bring back to life those that were bitten by the ten-headed serpent (Ravana). 54
The black-eyed lady’s waist used to be invisible like the sky because of its slenderness. Now, even though it lost its slenderness because of pregnancy, it became equal to the sky because of lord Vishnu’s foot residing there. (Sky is called ‘Vishnupada’). 55
When the cluster of five planets, The Sun, Mars, Jupiter, Venus and Saturn were at their respective zeniths, when Jupiter, the planet ‘Guru’, stayed with Moon, when the Sun entered Aries, ‘Mesha’, on the ninth day of the brighter fortnight, when the Moon was with the star ‘Punarvasu’, at the auspicious moment of Capricorn, ‘Karkataka’, the indefinable and matchless lustre, the equal of which there never was, nor can be, came into existence from the holy fire-wood, ‘Arani’ in the form of ‘Ayodhya’ to burn away all the ‘Palasa’ fuel. (I.e. both the tree as well as demons). 56
Hari (Vishnu) kindly embellished the race of the Raghus by the name of Rama which made the words of Valmiki fragrant. 57
Three more, bright as the triple fires, were born after him resembling their elder brother in the unworldly noble characters. 58
Among them, Bharata, resplendent with modesty, was born of Kaikeyi and Lakshmana and Satrighna were born of Sumitra. 59
These heroes grew up, pledging themselves for the welfare of the Brahmanas, like the hands of Mukunda (Vishnu) who is the delight of the worlds. 60
Then, once Dasaratha (lit. the possessor of ten chariots) was approached by Viswamitra (son of Kusika)-Dasaratha, whose chariot was once flocked around by the fleeting armies of the deities who were assaulted by the armies of the haughty demons in a great battle, terrific with their vast witchcraft. The un-
apprehensive sage was the one who performed the sacrifice of Trisanku. He was like an epic poem with ‘Sargabandha’ (viz. 1. the divisions of chapters of an epic. 2. The creation of another world i.e., ‘Trisankuswarga’). He was like the ‘Prakrit’ grammar because of the ‘Varnavyatyaya’ (viz., 1. change of letters in ‘Prakrit’ grammar. 2. Change of the caste from ‘kshatriyatva’ to ‘Brahmanatva’.). He was like the planet ‘Budha’ (Mercury) being ‘Somasutha’ (Viz. 1. Budha, the son of Moon. 2. One, who extracted the Soma juice- i.e., performed the Soma sacrifice). The king asked the sage about the reason for his coming. 61
The deep-hearted Viswamitra (son of Gadhi), whose greatness is boundless, after receiving the customary honour, requested the king for the protection of his sacrifice, thus- 62.
O King, I desire to finish successfully a sacrifice, which is already begun, overcoming the mischief of the demons. The protection of the sacrifice is to be done by your son Rama, agreeably disciplined, and accompanied only by his bow-friend, Lakshmana. 63
The king, upon hearing these harsh words of the sage, became deeply hurt at heart because of his too much affection for his son. 64
When the sage, Viswamitra, though requested in a number of ways, remained adamant in his demand, Vasishta, the family priest of the solar race, spoke to the king thus: 65
“Honour this sage Viswamitra whose fortunes are brimful. May Rama, along with Lakshmana, proceed to make the earth free of demons.” 66
Dasaratha, thus, with confidence established by the words of Vasishta, fulfilled the desire of Viswamitra by presenting him with his sons. 67
Rama who could be got only by ‘Yoga’ by those, whose minds have become free from the fetters of the world, now followed Viswamitra, by the orders of his father. 68
The great sage Viswamitra, taking along with him Rama together with ‘Lakshmana to protect the sacrifice spoke thus: 69
“O Rama, I have with me two spells, ‘Bala’ and ‘Atibala’ (Strength and Super-strength) got by the strength of penance. I shall now bestow them upon you.” 70
After Rama received the spells, the sage showed him a place and said: 71
“ In this place, long ago, Manmatha, the mind born, lost his body, becoming a locust in the fire of the Supreme Lord Shiva’s eye hidden in the parting of his hair (viz., the forehead). Therefore, this country came to be known as ‘Anga’. 72
Then, they crossed the river Sarayu, rising from the lake Manasa. Next, they crossed the borders of two countries ‘Malada’ and ‘Karusha’, which got their names by the washed of dirt (‘mala’) and excreta (‘karusha’) of Indra who got great sin by the slaughter of Vritra. Then Viswamitra said to the two sons of Dasaratha: 73
A Yaksha by name, Suketu got a daughter named Tataka by the grace of Brahma. Sunda married her and begot by her a son named Maricha. 74
Once, after Sunda was killed, Maricha committed an outrage against sage Agastya (Vessel-born) and was turned into a demon by his curse. Tataka also became a man-eater. 75
She got the strength of a thousand of elephants by a boon of the lotus-born, Brahma, and together with her son, began causing calamities to the countries. Now, she is to be slain by you. 76
Hearing this, Rama had a doubt about killing a woman. 77
But, Viswamitra cited the example of Manthara, daughter of Virochana being killed by Indra for her crimes against the earth, and also that of Bhargava’s (sage Sukra’s) mother i.e., the wife of Bhrugu, being killed by the Lord Vishnu. He thus removed Rama’s great perplexity about the killing of Tataka. 78
Rama gave word to kill Tataka and his bow also repeated the same in the form of the twang of the string. 79
By that time, the terrible demoness, Tataka, red with blood-mud, blocked up the path of the sage with vehemence, like the evening, red with the vermilion dust, signifying the destruction of the flesh-eating demons. (The evening is also
the mealtime of the demons). She was the one who, by killing people freely, made the spacious cross roads of the city of death jammed by the playful crowds of the servants of the Death-god, because of her deeds. 80
As the roar of Tataka entered Rama’s ear, so also the string of his bow reached his ear with a desire to kill her. 81
Tataka made her life an exciting appetising drink to Rama’s arrow, which is getting ready for the feasts of the future battles. 82.
The sage gave the mystic missiles Jrimbhaka etc., discovered by Bharadwaja to the slayer of Tataka as per the direction of Indra. 83
Then the sage showing some place equal to the world of Brahma said: 84
“Here, in this forest, the bachelor Vamana moved about engaged in offering oblations, libations etc., and underwent the prescribed impositions in order to curb Bali, the demon king. This forest is resorted to reverentially every day by the pure and holy Brahmanas who are engaged in the quest of the supreme soul and who have subdued the worldly worries. 85
This deep black cluster of trees of the hermitage encompasses the borders of the quarters and skies as if it also is bent upon measuring the world-- this hermitage of Vamana, the reliever of the angels’ distresses, the beggar of the whole world, the incarnation of the birth-less Vishnu. 86
In this way the sons of Dasaratha while treading the path felt no fatigue hearing to Viswamitra’s holy stories, full of several sentiments and sweet to the ear. The lengthy path appeared contracted. 87
Then Viswamitra entered Siddharshrama and began the sacrifice. 88
Later seeing the crowd of meat-eaters (the demons) dreadful like the army of Death-god, rushing in from the depths of the sky, the confounded sons and disciples of Viswamitra, with the firewood and the ‘Kusa’ grass slipping from their hands, fled, and related the matter to Raghava, longing for a battle. 89
The night-wandering demons brought the peaks of the mountains and cast them on all sides. They tied up their hair-locks with garlands of intestines. They clapped the hands with anger, stood here and there and danced again and again. They moistened the earth with blood. They scorched the angels going
along the sky with their fire-like looks. In this way they blocked the passage of the sky. 90
By virtue of the contact with Viswamitra who had changed from ‘Kshatriyatva’ to ‘Brahmanatva’, Ramabhadra, also though, a ‘Kshatriya’, fit for a ‘Pippala danda’ (peepal stick), preferred to handle a ‘Palasa danda’ (viz. 1. ‘Palasa’ stick fit for a ‘Brahmin’. 2. punishing the ‘palasas’ flesh-eating demons.). 91
The wicked-minded Marica fought for a while and was instantly cast away by the arrow of Rama, the leader of the Raghu race. Thereafter Marica remained forever immersed in the ocean because of the fear of Rama and donned the make-up resembling a waterman. 92.
The war-minded Subahu, disliked by the sages, was cut off by the arrow of Rama, scion of the Kakustha race, and was made a guest of Yama, the lord of the deceased. 93
The lives of the flesh-eating demons, like a love-stricken woman, fled away from the heart with the arrow discharged by Rama- the arrow which was born in a ‘vamsa’ (viz. 1.bow made of bamboo. 2. Rama born in a noble family), equipped with a chest-breaking ‘Phala’ (viz. 1. tip of an arrow. 2. attractive attainments of Rama) and besmeared with ‘sneha’ (viz. 1. oil to smear the arrow. 2. love for Rama.} 94.
Now that, with the destruction of the night-roamers, obstacles for the sacrifices were gone, the sage finished the final rites of the sacrifice. Then he desired to unite Sita, the sacrifice-born, personified Lakshmi, with Rama, who was already united, with ‘Jayalakshmi’- (Goddess of victory) in the battlefield. 95
Then Kausika set off towards Mithila and narrated thus to Rama: 96
Long ago, an ascetic king named Kusa, born from the lotus seated Brahma, got four sons Kusanabha etc., who were the founders of the four cities namely Kausambi, Mahodaya, Dharmaranya and Girivraja. 97
Kusanabha begot a hundred of daughters by Ghrutaci. 98
The wind-god became enamoured of those youthful damsels but was rejected by them and, getting enraged made their forms crooked. 99
Kusanabha, upon learning this matter, thought that forbearance was the only (proper) reaction and gave them in marriage to the king Brahmadatta, son of Chuli and Samada, upon which they became normal. 100
Kusanabha desired to have a son also and by the grace of his father begot my father. 101
In this way, Rama felt the lengthy hours of the night short by hearing to the story of Viswamitra’s birth. He then completed his early morning rites in the river Sona (lit. red), got red by the reddish eastern morning twilight, pleasingly beautiful like a bunch of ‘bandhuka’ flowers. Then he set off by the path leading to the river Ganga along with the sage who had, also, finished his rites. 102
He reached the river Ganga, which like a cow, is ‘Ajana Pavanakshira’ (viz. 1. River containing holy water from its place of origin. 2. Cow by nature giving healthy milk.), ‘Vrishananda vidhayini’ (viz. 1. river giving supreme bliss. 2. cow making the bull happy) and ‘Srutipranayini’ (viz. 1. river renowned in the Vedas. 2. cow loving music.) 103.
Then the sage spoke to Rama, who wanted to hear the story of the river Bhagirathi as follows: 104
“In the past, there was the daughter of Mount Sumeru, by name Manorama. The king of the mountains, Himavan became a householder by her i.e., married her. 105
Two daughters were born to him. One of them was Mandakini (Ganga). The other became the revered wife of the crescent-crested Siva. 106
The angels got the river and carried her to the heaven. The mountain Himavan gave Gauri, saturated with penance, to the great Lord Shiva. 107
When the auspicious couple united, the Fire-god, requested by the angels, took Shiva’s semen fallen on the ground. 108
The anger of the Divine mother, caused by losing the chance of getting a child, made the angels issueless and the earth polyandrous. 109
Agni, the fire-god, again requested by the angels along with Brahma who wanted to have a commander, deposited the semen of the Lord in the River Ganga at once. 110
She also, unable to bear that flame thrown upon her by the fire-god, got tired and let it in a grove of reeds near the Himavan. 111
There, in no time, a six lotus-faced flame rose i.e., Shanmukha-Kumaraswamy was born for the satisfaction of the Krittika birds- the flame, which was to destroy the darkness in the form of the demon Taraka. 112
Now, O my lad, listen how the river of the angels became triple-formed, just as it is said about the god who devours the oblations in a sacrifice. (The three fires-‘Dakshina’, ‘Garhaptya’ and ‘Ahavaniya’). 113
There lived in Ayodhya a king of solar race, by name Sagara. He married Kesini and Sumati. 114
He, along with his wives, did penance for hundred years to beget children. The sage Bhrigu was pleased with him and gave him the wealth of issue. 115
Of the two queens, Kesini got a son, Asamanjasa. The younger one, Sumati got six thousand sons. 116
The king expelled Asamanjasa of unworthy character from the country. Later, he started a horse sacrifice and set the horse free. 117
Indra in the form of a demon stole the horse. The sons of Sumati set off in search of the lost horse. 118
The sons of Sagara dug the whole earth together with the mountains and shattered the darkness of the serpent world with the rays of their nails. 119.
The heroes became comparable to the locusts in the burning flame, namely, the rage of the sage Kapila, the flame which destroys multitudes of tamas (viz. 1. darkness. 2. The meanest of the three qualities viz., satva etc., or sin.) (They were burnt in the flame of the rage of sage Kapila.) 120.
Then the king said to his grandson Amsuman, son of Asamanjasa, “You bring back the horse and get the sacrifice completed.” 121.
Amsuman went through the cavity (made by his fathers) and saw them turned into ashes. He also found the horse, while searching for water to give libations to his fathers, along with his tears. 122.
Garuda, their maternal uncle told him thus, “Young man (Lit. One destined to live long) Bring the river Ganga here. It alone is their saviour” 123.
Sagara heard the story of his sons, got the horse, completed the sacrifice and died through the grief of his sons. 124.
Amsuman ruled the kingdom for long, placed the burden of the earth on Dilipa and did penance in the Himalayas, 125.
After Dilipa also died, Bhagiratha heard the story and was determined to make the river of the immortals, a river of the mortals also. (He wanted to bring down the divine river Ganga from heaven to the earth.) 126.
As Bhagiratha went to Gokarna and performed severe penance, the merciful Lord Shiva agreed to bear the heavenly river. 127.
Ganga which deluged the quarters of the sky with multitudes of waves,
Ganga which was strewn with star-pearls together with the moon-conches, 128.
Ganga, which made Aruna, tired with controlling the sun’s deviating horses attracted by the tides,
Ganga which made Indra perplexed in searching for his (white) elephant (Airavata) which was covered by the foam (and so could not be easily observed), 129.
Ganga whose rupture with the trees of Nandana garden could only be inferred from their floating leaves and flowers,
Ganga which made the sun unable to know the directions with the path of the sky made one single expansion of water, 130.
Ganga, which made the ships and the sky-ships turn upside, down and rolled them in the whirlpools and ditches,
Ganga which created lines of dark cloud-like mossy creepers along the borders of the quarters, 131.
That heavenly river, over-burdened with pride, fell down in the cavities of the forest-like matted hair of Lord Shiva. 132.
The divine river, finding no outlet from he tuft of Shiva, bore comparison with a drop of dew hanging from the tip of a blade of ‘durva’ grass. 133.
Bhagiratha, not able to find the river, became disheartened by the cruelty of fate and pleased Lord Shiva (with his prayers). 134.
Shiva got pleased with the eulogies of Bhagiratha and released Ganga, which fell upon the mountaintop, split into seven currents, and also fell into the lake Bindu.
135. Of the seven currents, three flowed towards east; three towards west and the remaining one followed Bhagiratha, bent upon the obsequies of his manes. 136.
On the way Bhagirathi surrounded and flooded the sacrificial field of sage Jahnu who drank it off but later being pacified, released it through his ear-passage. 137
Bhagiratha made his manes attain heaven with the waters of the river Jahnavi. Thus fulfilled of his aim, he returned to his city. 138.
Rama, after hearing the story of Bhagirathi crossed the river. He saw the city Visala and asked Viswamitra, “Whose is this?” He replied thus: 139.
“Long ago, when a quarrel arose between the deities and the demons for the nectar, Lord Vishnu, the Omni-shaped, showed an illusion infatuating the world and got the demons destroyed by Indra, wielder of the hundred-edged weapon Vajra, 140.
Diti, their mother with boundless anger, desirous of getting a son who could subdue Indra, according to the advice of her husband, Marica (i.e. Kasyapa) did penance for long in Kusaplava. 141.
Indra, the wielder of the thunderbolt, serving her with deceitful intention, found that she became impure when she fell asleep with her hair falling on the feet, entered her womb, cut the embryo into seven and came out. 142.
Diti, knowing the fate of her (to be born) son, got the same seven pieces made into seven wind-gods, the Maruts, by Indra and went back to heaven. 143.
Then, a king was born to Ikshwaku by Alambusa. He built a city named Visala, named after him.” 144.
Viswamitra, along with the princes, got hospitality from the then ruling king Sumati, spent the night there and set off (next morning) for Mithila. He showed to Rama the hermitage of Gautama, the noblest of the sages and told him the story relating to his wife thus: 145.
“Indra had sex with his (Gautama’s) wife in a mean way. The sage, with rage, made (cursed) Indra testicle-less and the wife invisible. 146.
Gautama told his wife, ‘You will be relieved of the curse when Rama enters the forest.’ Then he went to Himalayas to do penance. 147.
When the angels came to know about this matter, Indra, by the dexterity of the manes, got for himself the testicles of a goat. 148
So, may Gautama, now receive back his wife, purged of the sin.” So saying Viswamitra entered the hermitage along with Rama. 149.
Because of the mighty fate, the ‘rajas’ {viz. 1. baser quality. 2. dust} became the cause for both the misery and happiness to the virtuous wife of Gautama. (She got transformed {into a stone} because of her ‘rajo guna’ {baser quality}. Again, she got her original form because of the ‘rajas’ {dust of Rama’s feet}). 150.
Viswamitra, along with the princes, received the hospitality of Ahalya and Gautama and went to the sacrificial house of Janaka, near Mithila. 151.
After he was honoured by Janaka as ordained, Satananda, the priest of the race of Nimi, spoke to Rama thus: 152.
“This sage Viswamitra, when he was following the profession of a ‘Kshatriya’, once went to the hermitage of Vasishta, son of Lord Brahma. There, he received boundless hospitality. He came to know that it was due to the great virtue of Vasishtha’s divine cow and requested the sage to give it to him. As the sage refused, this one dragged the yelling cow but was made to flee by her, endowed with great power (army). 153
Surprised with her power, he obtained, by doing penance, various charms of missiles and resumed the battle again for the divine cow. But Vasishtha {lit. husband of Arundhati) succeeded on blocking all the mystic missiles with his ‘Brahma danda’. 154.
Then, Viswamitra became remorseful and, knowing for certain, that the Brahmanic power is far greater than the ‘Kshatriya’ power (Spiritual power is greater than materialistic power), performed great penance in the south to obtain that (spiritual power}. 155.
At that time, Trisanku, a king of the solar race, who desired to attain heaven with body and was refused by Vasishtha, later, got transformed into a pariah by Vasishtha’s sons, Mahodaya etc., enraged upon being pressed (to dispatch him bodily to heaven). He then took refuge with Viswamitra. 156.
Viswamitra began a sacrifice to fulfil Trisanku’s desire. 157.
He made (cursed) Vasishtha’s sons eaters of dog’s flesh i.e. pariahs because they did not attend the sacrifice out of aversion for Trisanku, even though many Brahmins had turned up. 158.
When even the deities failed to turn up to receive their share of the oblations, 159.
This great soul made Trisanku ascend heaven with the power of his penance__ Trisanku, who lost the ‘rajavesha’ {viz. 1.kingly form. 2. moon’s sphere.} wore ‘neelambara’ (viz. 1. black clothes. 2. black sky i.e. clouds.) and appeared just like a rainy night. 160.
Indra, finding Trisanku entering heaven, became enraged and got him thrown down. But he {Trisanku} could stay in the sky getting the support of the peg of Viswamitra’s order. 161
Viswamitra, requested by the deities, gave up his work of creating another world. Then he began to do great penance in Pushkara in the west, because of the obstacle that arose in the south. There, Sunassepha, the middle son of Rucika, begged him for protection- Sunassepha, who was bought for a number of cows by the king Ambarisha wanted to atone the loss of his sacrificial animal by replacing Sunassepha as the sacrificial animal. 162.
The sage was determined to protect him (Sunassepha) by exchanging one of his sons. But, because of their refusal, he made them to face the same fate as that of Vasishtha’s sons. (He cursed them also to become pariahs.) Then he pleased Indra and Upendra with two ‘gathas’ (verses) and, by their grace, got both Ambarisha and Sunassepha get their desires fulfilled. (Sunassepha was saved from death and Ambarisha got the merit of the sacrifice even without sacrificing an animal.) 163.
Then, a lengthy break of penance befell him who got enamoured of Menaka. 164.
Then, repenting (for his lustfulness), he did severe penance on the north mountain on the bank of river Kausiki, 165.
There, he cursed Rambha, sent by Indra (lit. foe of Jambha), “Become a stone.” Then, as he began penance in the east stopping the breath, the heat of his penance-fire perturbed the deities. Lord Brahma (lit. the lotus-seated), well-wisher of the deities, approached him and said, “You are now a ‘Brahmarshi’ (a Brahmin sage) because of our conquest of sensuousness. May Vasishtha also say (agree to) this proposal? 166.
He attained ‘brahmarshitva’ (stature of a Brahmin sage) just like a twice-born (viz. Brahmin) gets ‘Brahma-varcas’ (spiritual splendour) by ‘upanayana’ (the sacred thread-ceremony).” 167.
Viswamitra (son of Gadhi), thus praised by the priest of Janaka, spent the night there along with the two princes and offered oblations mixed with flowers and ‘kusa’ grass to the sun (lit. beloved of the lotuses), the embodiment of the Vedas. 168.
Then he entered the capital city of Janaka- the city, the roads of which were covered with the lustre of the lady citizens-the lustre of sapphires darkened with a cluster of black water-lilies- looks falling incessantly with curiosity to have a look of Rama and Lakshmana. Viswamitra said to the two sons of Dasaratha thus: 169.
“In this city, by the good fortune of the king Janaka who started a sacrifice, Goddess Earth, the womb of jewels, gave birth to a jewel in the form a girl named Sita. 170.
What else can be the greatness of this city, because, 171.
It is said that Mithila is the labour-room of Sita’s mother, i.e. Goddess Earth-the Goddess whose garment is the ocean, whose seat is the golden mountain, whose neck-lace is the river which is the only friend of Sagara’s sons along the path to heaven, (viz. river Ganga) and whose pleasure-mountain is the tusk of the boar incarnation of the Primordial Person. 172.
Janaka had fixed, as the fee for Sita’s marriage, the fixing of the (string of the) bow which was impossible even to the deities. 173.
Then, the great sage entered Janaka’s council hall which was equal to Sudharma (Indra’s council hall). The two princes also, armed with their bows, entered with curiosity to look at the bow. 174.
There, Viswamitra, honoured by Janaka as ordained, told him (Janaka) the story of Dasaratha. Janaka, showing the arrow, said, “This is the bow which was kept with our great ancestor, Devarata by Indra and other deities and is guarded by me as the fee for (the marriage of) Sita. Then Viswamitra directed Rama to fix (the string of) the bow. 175.
As Rama exhibited the strength of his arm on the bow-sacrifice, not only the ‘gunaropanam’ (the fixing of the string) was done to the ‘vamsa’ (the bamboo i.e. the bow), but the ‘gunaropanam’ (confirming the quality i.e. valour) also was also done to his ‘vamsa’ (race). It was not the bow alone that was ‘akrishtam’ (drawn) but Sita’s mind also became ‘akrishtam’ {attracted) towards him instantly. It was not the bow alone that became ‘bhagnam’ (broken) but the pride of arms of all the kings also became ‘bhagnam’ (destroyed). 176.
The sky-blocking sound caused by the breaking of the bow drawn by Rama acted like the thunder of the clouds to the swans in the form of the proud kings. It appeared like the auspicious chanting of the hymns at the time of the first entrance of the goddess of valour. It also sounded in Sita’s heart like the auspicious instrumental music at the time of her marriage. 177.
The new (unheard before) high pitch sound, born out of the bow broken because of the hard drawing, sounded like the sound of welcome to the rulers of the quarters with the instant trumpets of the quarter-elephants. It also sounded like the drums at the time of the journey of the lady in the form of Rama’s fame who set off with curiosity to roam about the world. 178.
Dasaratha, invited by Janaka who came to a decision regarding the marriage, reached Mithila, after getting the approval of the priest (Vasishtha). 179.
Dasaratha whose fame appeared like the saffron mark on the face in the form of the music concert of the divine damsels, Dasaratha by whom the Primordial Person was fathered, Dasaratha by whom the earth became a kingdom. Dasaratha, upon seeing the fringes of the fluttering banners of which knight’s chariot, Indra felt relieved from the calamity in the hazards of battles reached Mithila. 180.
Janaka brought Kusadhwaja, his younger brother, who was installed, in Sankasya after slaying Sudhanva in the battle long ago. 181.
Dasaratha, who, along with his priest, was honoured by the two brothers, performed the auspicious rite of ‘godana’ (cutting of the hair) of his sons. 182.
Rama accepted Sita with the approval of his father; just the fire accepts the offerings from the sacrificer according to the injunctions of the Vedas. 183.
Ramabhadra got Sita by fixing a ‘guna’ (string) on the divine bow according to Viswamitra’s word. His younger brother, Lakshmana also got Urmila by fixing so many ‘gunas’ (noble qualities) in the mind of the king of Mithila. 184
Bharata and Satrighna also, obtaining Kusadhwaja’s approval, became householders (married persons) by Mandavi and Srutakirti. 185.
Dasaratha, returning from the kingdom of Videha, along with his sons who got married, saw on the way, the sage Parashurama- Rama who was angry like the unbearable fire rising high at the time of the dissolution of the world, Rama of ferocious and unattackable valour, Rama who gave libations to his father with the streaming blood emanating from the edge of his axe which smashed the mountains in the form of the pride of the ‘Kshatriya’ (kingly) caste, Rama, the foremost of the haughty, Rama of terrific heroism, Rama who, though wearing a bark-garment fit for penance, did not lose much of his interest in battles because of habit. 186.
Dasaratha, though his joy got dwindled upon seeing him (Parashurama), honoured him like a great sage and said, “Noble sir, Are you well? 187.
The foremost of the Bhrigu race, i.e. Parashurama, without listening to the soft words of Dasaratha, said to the polite Ramabhadra thus; “I want to know the
strength of your arm on this bow- you who are not acquainted with my axe and got fame by (breaking) the rotten bow. 188.
Rama took the bow, fixed the string and placed an arrow on it; but the prudent one, observing his (Parasurama’s) sagehood and feeling pity for his life withdrew himself from an imminent battle. 189.
The two, the son of Jamadagni (Parashurama) and his bow, the earlier who was born in the Bhrigu clan and the later which was born in a bamboo, adopted ‘prahnabhava’ and became ‘arpitagunas’ to Raghava. (Parashurama became humble and gave away his virtue, whereas his bow got bent and gave away its string.) 190.
Of the two, the bow and Bhargavarama, who simultaneously got ‘guna’, (the bow got the string and its owner got a noble nature.) ‘rijuta’ (straightness) became ‘vakrata’ (curvedness) in the case of the bow and ‘vakrata’ (crookedness) became ‘rijuta’ (straightforwardness} in the case of Parashurama. (The bow, which was straight in the beginning, became curved when its string was fixed. Parashurama who was haughty in the beginning became humble when his challenge was met.) 191.
Then Raghava (Rama), with his infallible arrow, immediately blocked Bhargava’s (Parsurama’s) passage to heaven. It was apt. 192.
Verily, an arrogance committed against a great person begets a likewise result in a greater degree. Bhargava obstructed the journey of Raghava for a moment because of which he got his passage to higher worlds blocked forever. 193.
Then Dasaratha embraced Rama tightly and kissed his head- Rama who got more enriched by acquiring Parasurama’s power, Rama who attained renewed beauty by his arm resembling the serpent-king (Adisesha). He (Dasaratha), then, entered Ayodhya along with his wives, sons and their wives- Ayodhya that is surrounded by the river Sarayu that flows close to it like a moat. As he (Dasaratha) entered the city, his white parasol, due to the glances of the eagerly looking lady citizens, appeared as one made of the feathers of a
peacock’s tail- glances which made the windows spaceless and stole the beauty of the ‘tamala’ trees. (The glances were as black as the ‘tamala’ trees) 194.
The foremost of the sentiments i.e. ‘sringara’ (erotic sentiment) served the four sons of Dasaratha, the head of the Ikshwaku race- the sons who became (in the art of lovemaking) by attaining youth and enjoyed unbound happiness with their wives whose gestures of love were dimmed because of shyness. 195.
Rama, the scholar with intellect (sharp-pointed) like the tip of a blade of ‘kusa’ grass, enjoyed utmost happiness with that princess (Sita) just as the knowledge endowed with the perception of the triad (the three ‘Vedas’).
Thus ends the BALAKANDA in the CHAMPURAMAYANA written by the king of Vidarbha.


Dasaratha, by the strength of his arms, enjoying happiness unattainable by other kings, kept Bharata and Satrighna at their maternal uncle, Yudhajit’s city. 1
Then, Dasaratha, just as one who wishes to make the golden mountain i.e. the Meru mountain, capable of holding the whole world, a pillar to hold te roof of his house, made up his mind to make Rama the king just to the territory of his realm-- Rama who, by himself, was the Lord of three worlds.
Then he consulted with the ministers, called for the senior citizens who were equal to Brihaspati (the priest of Indra) and spoke thus: 3
“It is well-known to you that all my ancestors had always been thinking about which is conducive to the happiness of the people. They were moving about the path of virtue, compassionate towards living beings. They were considering honour as wealth, vigilant in earning fame. They were always engaged in brushing away (removing) the miseries of the people, lived happily and attained heaven. 4
So, we also following their way of thinking only, protected all the people, all this time. 5
“In this matter, you alone who had been experiencing my rule are the authority.6
“The world will never take to a path which goes against to the policies accepted by you. So there is something to be requested. 7
“Oldage has appeared in my body like moonlight in the cluster of lotuses-- oldage which is inevitable and cannot be warded off by my fame sung by deities and humans, nor by swords, nor by valorous strides equally in the skies and on the earth. 8
“So I like to enjoy undisturbed happiness of leisure, permitted by the noblemen i.e., you all, after placing the burden of the whole world, which was borne by me for long, on this my lad (Rama)_who is the possessor of unlimited valour as was revealed by the discomfiture of Bhargava-- Bhargava having a dreadful form by wearing an axe, the edge of which was pre-eminent in shattering the pride of the whole Kshatriya clan. Rama is the embodiment of
civility, the abode of love for the people, untouched by jealousy and e affectionate.” 9
Hearing this, the people made the regions of the quarters resound with their sweet buzz born out of joy like peacocks cooing freely with immense joy caused by hearing the thundering sounds of the multitude of clouds about to rain. 10.
Streams of joyous tears emerged from the faces of the people like nectar from lotuses, as if to get their eyes washed to witness with eager Rama’s splendour about to manifest itself on the day of his coronation. 11
Then, suppressing his doubled joy within himself-- joy doubled with the immense joy of the people who got their bodies armoured with the horripilations as if to avoid the fall of the thick dust about to rise by the commotion of the crowds of restless people delighted beyond measure in the great festivity about to take place—the king asked the prominent ministers like Sumantra thus: 12
The king asked: “How is it that this kind of affection arose in the people for the artless Rama instantly abandoning me who has not yet resorted to the land of penance, but am still watchful in protecting them in the right path.” 13
They (the ministers) replied reverentially to Dasaratha who has suppressed his intentions within himself. 14
“There is nothing strange in the people liking your son Ramabhadra even when you are still there. The thirsty Cakora bird looks up at the moon but not at the ocean even though it is the cause of the birth of moon.” 15
Then the people, along with the ministers, hurried to collect the necessary things for coronation as per the directions of Vasishta, the greatest among the sages. 16
The king, with renewed joy, called for Rama, charming with modesty, and told him, “I intend to place the crown upon your head immediately on the day of the star Pushyami.” 17
Then sage Vasishta performed the auspicious rites to Rama who returned to his house after relating the intention of Dasaratha to Kausalya. 18
A joy un-describable over and above the heads of the citizens filled the ears of the quarter-elephants with the din of the auspicious instrumental music.19
Manthara, who is said to be the root cause for the destruction of the night-wanderers and whose mind, a friend of her naturally crooked body and so equally crooked, stirred Kaikeyi’s mind cruelly just as a she-buffalo stirs the cold and sweet water of a lake. 20
Alas, even in the mind of the mother of Bharata cruelty arose by Manthara’s words that robbed the people of their happiness, just as a thunder-bolt is born in the cluster of cold water-giving clouds by the harm done by the collision created by the wild blowing winds.21
She (Kaikeyi), who had lost her original nature because of the possession of the goblin, namely Manthara, reminded her husband, Dasaratha, about the two boons which he had given to her long ago for reliving him from the pain caused in the battle with the demons, Sambara who lived in city of Vaijayanta in the forest Dandaka. 22
Of the two (boons) the fulfilment of one was to be the coronation of Bharata and that of the other, Rama’s dwelling in the forest living by the forest products only. 23
The two boons, like two red-hot arrows heated for long, pierced the two ears of Dasaratha, who was afraid of failing from truth. His mind became scorched as if roasted in fire. 24
Even by the thought of separation from his son, Dasaratha’s consciousness fled away from him, (became unconscious) like a doe, which flees away from a bush which is swallowed by the flames of the forest fire (conflagration). 25
Then Dasaratha, some how, got back his consciousness, said to Kaikeyi, thus: 26
“Certainly Rama will throw away the auspicious thread (tied round the hand before performing the religious rites of coronation) and go to the forest. But how can the people will give up the festivities of his coronation for which they were waiting eagerly for a long lime? I also will, some how, bear up with
separation from my son because of the fear of failing from virtue. But, O my wife, ill-fame causing grief will befall you for aeons (kalpas) to come. 27
“O hard-hearted woman, my life cannot remain without Rama who is the very joy of my eyes. I presume that, my marriage with you, which took place long ago, by the strength of ‘fate’, will lead me to the proximity of Yama, the death-god.” 28
Kaika, who was only bent upon having her desire being fulfilled, sarcastically said: 29
“If, on account of your infatuation for your son, you do not mind destruction of truth and the promise becomes futile, I salute the code of virtue with folded hands. 30
“Has not Arimdama (another name for King Sibi) reached the vicinity of our ears— Arindama, the foremost of the truthful, who cut his own body to protect a young dove which was about to be devoured by a hawk? (Have you not heard about king Sibi?) 31
“Also, there was one, learned and renowned for his magnanimity, by name Alarka, who, having promised his two eyes to a Brahmin, fulfilled his promise. 32
“Kings of steadfast character and true promise, will say that your promise is a writing on water-- the promise that you gave me out of love when your affliction caused at the time of the battle with the demons, was put to an end by me. 33
“Whether you maintain the truth of your word or not, I cannot tolerate any honour done to the mother of Rama. If you do not give up the preparations that are going on, I will consume poison and die in your presence.” 34
The king again said to her who was speaking in this vein: 35
“O cruel hearted woman, what are you talking, without compassion and giving up all sense of propriety. 36
“O wicked woman, you will not be counted amongst the virtuous ladies; Rama will not be counted among those that have father; nor I will enjoy the happiness of having sons. Anyhow, Bharata should not give me waters of libation. 37
‘The barks of trees can be clothes (to Rama); the fortunate shady trees can become his dwellings; but how can the rocky places, which are even harder than your heart, become his beds? “38
Even though rebuked by her husband like this, Kaikeyi, who was overpowered by Manthara, did not become soft-hearted just as the moonstone which is covered by creepers does not become moistened even though the moon is shining without any obstruction. 39
Then, Dasaratha, desirous of enjoying the happiness of looking at Rama’s face even for a moment, ordered Sumantra, “Bring my son” 40.
Rama who was ushered in the King’s palace immediately, prostrated before his father, and, finding him, upon close observation, of unusual facial features, became astonished and asked Kaikeyi, “What is this?” 41
The sinful intentioned one (Kaikeyi) replied: 42
“My lad, your father is now repentig unable to fulfilthe two boons promised and is sunk deep in the fathomless ocean of grief on account of his affection for his son and the fear of breaking truth. 43
“The two boons are your living in the forest subsisting on forest products and the rule of the land by Bharata.” 44
Hearing this, Rama became gladdened and, with folded palms, submitted to her. 45
“O mother, Is Bharata afraid of the burden of the earth? On the other hand, am I afraid from the holy forest? Why is our father, the ornament of the race of Sagara, greiving? If he cannot get the vow, which is a lighter one compared to the one of giving libations ith the holy aters of the divine river, fulfilled by two of us Bharata) and myself, what is the use of his having sons? 46
“O mother, I am ordered just to protect my own body in the forest, whereas the burden of the whole earth is placed upon the head of my younger brother. So, considering the easiness of the duty ordained, your partiality for me is greater. 47
“Why did not our father tell me in his own words about the pleasant and auspicious coronation of my younger brother and become the recipient of the auspicious full vessel in the form of my prostrations?” 48
Immediately Dasaratha became unconscious and fell down like a mountain struck by the thunder-bolt, like a tree surrounded on all sides by conflagration and like the hapless king Nahusha who was thrown down from the position of the lordship of heaven. 49
Then she ordered Rama to perform the father’s command. 50
The famous Rama carried the mother’s order upon his head like a garland and started for the forest-- for the protection of the worlds. 51
He then went to Kausalya’s house and, after bowing, related to her Kaikeyi’s insisting upon the obstruction for his coronation, and living in the forest and also the king’s discomfiture. 52
Upon hearing it, she fell down upon the earth heart-broken as if pierced in both the ears with arrows with tips besmeared with poison. She lamented thus: 53
“Verily, the sage Vasishta has tied the auspicious thread on your hand saying “ Dig the bulbous roots in the forest-your hand which is endowed with the signs of lines of the wheel, the lotus and the conch and which causes welfare to the three worlds.” 54
Then, Lakshmana, the son of Sumitra, became greatly enraged and said to his elder brother equal to Indra. 55
“Revered sir, this should not be done-- this giving up the kingdom and going to the forest, by the word of Kaikeyi who only deserves to be censured by the world; nor by the word coming from the laxity of intelligence of the king who is devoid of discrimination of action good and bad on account of his mind being overpowered with passion and oldage. 56
“Moreover, is not the kingdom, at first, given to you, even unasked for? 57
“The consistent duty of a Kshatriya generally installs him in beatitude for his protecting the virtues of the castes and stages of life, even by transgressing (a little) from the path of (general) virtue. 58
“It is only the human effort of a hero that can overcome the inevitable power of fate and guarantees one the objectives of life. 59
“Let not your lotus feet become crimson on account of wandering in the forest. Instead, let my hand become a little reddish by drawing the bowstring. Don’t bend before the words of our father, cheated by Kaikeyi. Revered Sir, Ocean of Valour, Let my bent bow be a little actve.” 60
Rama pacified the agitated Lakshmana speaking in this vein and said: 61
“My lad, for the kings born in the solar race, it is only the order of father that directs every one in all actions. 62
“Many people like Kandu, Parashurama (son of Renuka) and Puru had even committed the slaughter of the cow, killing one’s own mother and exchanging their own youth (to the old-age of their fathers) without any hesitation because of their respect for their father’s words. Thereby they are reckoned as the foremost among the virtuous. 63
“Therefore, I, bound by our father’s word, am certainly going to the forest.” 64.
Then, Kausalya, who, with boundless love for hr son, desired to go along with him, was reverentially told by Rama, after paying obeisance, thus: 65.
“O mother, my father’s body, which is already scorched by the fire of sorrow because of Kaikeyi’s harsh words, cannot be ignored by you, after I go to the forest.” 66.
Then she gave him her blessings preceded by prayers to all gods for his safe journey. 67.
Then Rama came out of his mother’s palace after bowing to her and reached the palace of Sita, who was engaged in the embellishment (of herself.) 68.
He made her who was joyful with the happy news (of the coronation), immediately sorrowful by (telling her) the news of forest dwelling-- just as a savage hunter terrifies, by the twang of his bow, a peahen in the forest, joyous with the thunder of the clouds. 69.
He said to her who got ready to follow him, thus: 70.
“O my beloved, daughter of Janaka, how can I endure (the sight of) your naturally tender ‘sirisha’-like delicate body wither in the forest-- the forest which is full of wolves (etc.) whose mouths are reddened with the blood oozing from the veins of the wounded hinder parts of the bodies of the herds of hinds (female deer) caught by them (the wolves)?” 71.
Then, as Sita’s desire to follow him did not slacken in spite of his many efforts, and, as Lakshmana also got ready to follow him, Rama gave away all his ornaments and thousands of elephants, along with the furious one named Satrinjaya, gifted to him by his maternal uncle, to Suyajna, the son of Vasishtha, and his costly jewels to Agastya and Kausika. Then, he obliged Lakshmana with these words: “Bring the two bows which rob the enemies of the gods (i.e. demons) of their valour, the two armours which never fail in the act of protecting, the two quivers which are filled with inexhaustible arrows, the two swords which have feasted (i.e. drank the blood of the enemies) in the battles, and all the weapons gifted to me by Varuna in the court of Janaka and (bringing all of them) follow me.” 72.
Sita also gave away all her ornaments to Suyajna’s wife. Lakshmana also pleased with his walth a scholar in the service of Kausalya. 73.
Rama also gave away to a poor and Brahmin with a big family, named Trijata, herds of cows spread in the area up to the spot where the stick thrown by him (Trijata) fell. Rama also gave away his varied riches to Brahmins Kapinjala etc. 74.
Then, they (Rama, Sita and Lakshmana) set off from the palace, forbidding the attendants from following them, thereby, proclaiming their determinedness in their journey. They, thus, both moistened and scorched the bodies and the minds by the flow of tears and the fire of sorrow of the ladies of the city-- the ladies whose tender leaf-like lower lips throbbed by the stormy wind of their breath. 75.
With an intention that Sita, who, before now, could not be seen even by angels treading the sky, should not now become the object of human eyes, the creator (Lord Brahma) blocked the eyes of the people with tears of grief. 76.
Rama entered the residence of the king once again before leaving, to acquaint him, “Sita is following me even though objected to. Younger brother, Lakshmana, also never leaves me.” 77.
As he (Rama) was announced and presented before the king by Sumantra, he (the king) fell down from his bed like one possessed by the devil and, supported by his wife (Kausalya), expressed, with continuous wailing, to accompany them to the forest. 78.
Then Sumantra said to Kaikeyi: 79.
“Noble lady, please desist from your drought-like persistence of destroying the sprout of joy arisen from (the announcement of) Rama’s coronation.” 80.
“Your mother asked your father to tell her the cause of his laughing as he laughed at the conversation of the ants moving near his bed, because he knew the languages of all living creatures by the grace of a boon. She (your mother) was disowned by the enraged king because of her pressing again and again even after being told that his revealing (of the conversation heard by him) would result in his death. Please don’t follow the way of your mother.” 81.
Kaikeyi cited the example of Sagara who expelled his son, Asamanja, (from his kingdom) and insisted upon her husband (to expel Rama likewise.) 82.
A great minister named Siddharthaka told her that Sagara’s expelling Asamamnja was due to his (Asamanja’s) throwing many people into the river Sarayu, thereby causing their death. 83.
Rama though advised by Dasaratha to go (to the forest) accompanied by attendants, requested only for a pickaxe, a basket and a pair of bark-garments. 84.
Kaikeyi brought forth bark-garments for the three who were accustomed to luxuries and whose wealth of beauty became manifested (even in those bark-garments.} 85.
Rama, the lord of the Raghu race, according to the command of his middle mother, gave up his preference for the fine garments signifying auspicity, and wore the bark garments, which lost their harshness (moistened) by Sita’s tears rolling down the sides of her breasts. 86.
Constant grief and surprise, by turns, shone only on the faces of the onlookers whose minds were nailed down by the peg of grief but who surprisingly observed the facial splendour of Rama, the chief of the Ikshwaku race, not undergoing any change. 87.
The closure of the eyes of Vasishtha, aggrieved to see Rama in the bark-garments, itself became his (Vasishtha’s) organ of viewing his (Rama’s) reality (of divinity.) 88.
Vasishtha, the foremost of the inward-visionaries, did not grieve much, noticing that even in Rama no change in the feling could be observed while discarding the silken garments. 89.
But he (the family teacher of the race of sun) objected to Sita’s wearing the bark-garments. 90.
Kausalya, with motherly affection, embraced her daughter-in-law who, before departing, bowed to her and she (Kausalya) spoke with tear-choked voice: 91.
“The nymphs of the woods, seeing you treading, with faltering steps, along the path heated by the (hot-rayed) summer sun, will certainly curse their own lacking of the closure of their eyelids.” 92.
Then Rama circumbulated and bowed king and his mothers and set out, along with Lakshmana forbidding the crowd of door keepers (from following him.) 93.
A chariot was brought to the door by Sumantra, dutiful to the king’s orders. 94.
Sita got upon the chariot even before Rama who started upon his journey, just as Dawn which goes before the Sun, the lord of the day, who is about to ascend the chariot with light-blue i.e. green horses. 95.
The two sons of Dasaratha also, then, ascended the chariot. 96.
As and on Sita was anxious to leave the capital of the Raghus to go to the forest, so was the goddess of the kingdom of the demons too was anxious to leave Lanka (the capital city of the demons.) 97
As all the people, the young and the old alike, followed Ramabhadra, the city of Ayodhya also followed him by transforming her body into dust with respect, thinking, “I should not become virtueless (by remaining back.) 98.
The goddess Earth, as her daughter, by the turn of fate, started for the forest along with her (the daughter’s) husband who was not interested in the luxuries of kingship, immediately blocked the flow tears of the retinue with dust, thinking that it was not a good omen. 99.
As all the citizens left the city out of affection for Rama, and as only houses, shopping centres and streets remained back, Ayodhya, in a moment, became light like the slough cast off from the body of a serpent. 100.
Dasaratha came out of the city along with his harem and, unable to do anything else, stood for long looking at Rama only, and, when the chariot driven by Sumantra also became out of sight, swooned and fell upon the ground with incessant flowing tears. 101.
The king, after regaining consciousness, soothed by the attendants, liked (to go to) Kausalya’s house. 102.
Rama, the speed of whose chariot became slow due to the difficulty of making way through the crowds of people who thronged with adulation, reached the bank of the river Tamasa making the intellect-lotuses of people fold with the affliction-darkness. The sun (the thousand rayed) also reached the slopes of the western mountains. 103.
The stretches of trees on the bank of Tamasa became houses, with beds of strewn leaves to the lamenting people who, unable to endure separation from Rama’s feet, reached the forest. 104.
Then, at midnight, Rama, after consulting with Sumantra, deceived the crowds of the people and, by the chariot swifter than Garutman (son of Vinata), crossed over the land which was enriched by the three rivers, Vedasriti, Gomati and Nishyandika and which was bestowed upon Ikshwaku by Manu. He then reached the shelter of an ‘ingudi’ tree by the path along which the imprints of the hoofs of the chariot-horses through various forests became untraceable being covered by dense creepers and trees and masses of grass-- the ‘ingudi’ tree, the
roots of which were moistened by the waves of the river Ganga, and the top of which was embraced by the celestial Ganga, and which was an embellishment to Sringiberapura. 105.
The ‘nishada’ king’s (Guha’s) face became washed with incessant tears, both cold and hot simultaneously, caused by surging joy and sorrow-- joy upon seeing Rama who could be seen only by auspicious and virtuous deeds of so many births, and sorrow upon hearing about the ascetic way of life that befell him because of the two boons of his (Rama’s) (step) mother .106.
The dear friend, Guha, approached Rama with folded hands and requested him whole-heartedly. 107.
“My lord, my stupid uncultured tongue prompts me to make a request to you though you are intent upon carrying out the orders of your parents. 108.
“Here is my kingdom which is equipped with un-confrontable valorous soldiers and forts. It is full of all enjoyable luxuries which can prick the heart of Manthara. 109.
“Please accept this kingdom, not for the first time, and also show a little favour upon this person (me) by accepting him (me) as a fit servant. Please complete the fourteen years indicated by Dasaratha by staying here where sages of surprising splendour live, thereby not transgressing your father’s order and also by minimising the grief of separation from your mothers by viewing at the river Mandakini (Ganga).” 110.
Ramachandra rejected the friend’s request in loveable terms, thus: “My body which is, as per my mothe’s word, draped in bark garments is not fit for the royal garb.” 111.
Sumantra stayed the horses under a tree on the bank as per his (Guha’s) entreaty. Then, as the tidal wind carrying an abundance of drops of nectar dripping from the clusters of lotuses blew gently as if to render hospitality to the two sons of Dasaratha with the customary offering containing honey and as the sun disappeared behind the western mountains as if unable to see the state of Rama’s going to the forest, Rama performed the evening rituals and lied down upon the bed of leaves prepared by Lakshmana. 112.
Observing Rama, along with Sita, enter the tree-shade harem, Guha, along with Lakshmana, the doorkeeper, sat down with him giving up sleep and controlling great shower of tears. 113.
As the night ended and the sun, with bright rays, ascended the peak of the eastern mountain, the two sons of Dasaratha matted their hair and went to the shore of Ganga. 114.
Rama, with a delightful heart, said to Sita: 115.
“We take refuge with the goddess Bhagirathi, the divine medicine for the high fever of Kapila’s rage which befell Sagara’s sons while searching for their father’s sacrificial horse-- the medicine which was the ripened fortune of Bhagiratha who was intent upon offering libations to his forefathers.” 116
Then Rama, after, with consoling words, forbidding Sumantra words from accompanying him, boarded the boat brought by Guha along with Lakshmana and Sita who was praying (goddess Ganga) for their welfare. 117.
He (Rama) forbade Guha’s accompanying also, crossed the current of the divine river Ganga quickly and stepped in the country named Vatsa, rich with crops. There, he, skilful in shooting at moving targets, killed four animals (for their food) and spent the night under some tree. 118.
The next day, they reached, at Prayaga, the Sage Bharadwaja’s hermitage, clouded by the vast smoke of the sacrificial fires and saluted the great sage who was much delighted. Then, by the path directed by him, they crossed the flooding current of the river Yamuna by a bamboo float and reached Chitrakuta which gave the surprising sights of animals having no natural animosity yowards each other because of their contact with the sages, rich in tranquility. 119.
Rama rejoiced for a long time, the feeling of happiness of Saketa, more so because of the company of Sita, among the spots of Citrakuta, pleasant with the house of leaves built by his younger brother (Lakshmana) and resounding with the murmuring ‘panchama’ notes emanating from the throats of the intoxicated cuckoos. 120.
Sumantra, lingering with a fond hope, “Rama, bored by the forest-living, may call for me”, spent some more days with Guha and then, losing hope, returned back to the dull Ayodhya. He, then, descended from the chariot, the rattle of the rim of which became inaudible because of the piteous cries emanating from the grief-stricken and anxious citizens crying, “He has returned without Rama”. Then, he bowed before Dasaratha whose life was about to depart. 121.
Dasaratha, who fainted upon seeing Sumantra, was soothed by Kausalya and Sumitra, and he repeatedly asked him (Sumantra) with tear-choked voice, “How did Rama sojourn? What did Sita say? How did Lakshmana behave? ” Sumantra related to the king thus: 122.
“Your majesty, how can I, hard-hearted that I am, can say? 123.
“Your two sons, going far away from the wishes of the citizens who followed them longing to serve them and also leaving the chariot, became the new body-guards to Sita and trod by foot the paths on the banks of the Bhagirathi. 124.
“Also, your majesty, sage Vasishtha could not moisten your son’s hair with the milk got from his (Vasishtha’s) own sacrificial cow in the festivity of coronation. But, alas, it was moistened with the milk dripping from the Banyan tree, fetched by the ‘nishada’ (Guha), for the formation of the matted hair, which act brought tears from Sita’s eyes. 125.
“The nails of Sita’s feet, even without Lac (nail-polish), became reddish by treading the forest path; but her face never changed its hue while walking along with her husband. 126.
“During the nights, Lakshmana prepared a bed with leaves for Rama and Sita and, armed with the bow, remained sleepless, as if by the virtue of serving Rama’s feet, casting his looks all around to curb the stray wild animals."127.
The king, having thus heard the news about his sons, soothed Kausalya whose heart became wounded by the shaft of sorrow. Later, as the lustre, the embodiment of the ‘Vedas’ (i.e., the sun) slide to the peak of the western mountain, he spoke to Kausalya. 128.
“Long ago, I spent some time, on the bank of Sarayu, engrossed in hunting in a forest with trees blocking the sun. 129.
“There, skilled as I was in shooting at the source of sound, I hit a sage while he was fetching water from Sarayu, mistaking him for an elephant sucking water with its trunk and thus causing the sound. His aged and blind parents cursed me, ‘ You also die with the affliction for your son.” Later, I prepared a pyre for them to follow their son. 130.
“ ‘I was born of a ‘sudra’ woman by a ‘vysya.’ So, you do not get the sin of killing a Brahmin.’ So saying, the helpless sage went to heaven (died). 131.
“So, it is definite that I am in the clutches of death.” So saying, he (Dasaratha) became silent, with Rama occupying his mind. 132.
The calamity arising out of the sage’s curse is irrevokable. So, it made Dasaratha attain the tenth stage i.e. death. 133.
The enemies (of Indra) did not occupy the heaven. The ladies of the gods were not carried away as captives. The messengers of Indra (for inviting Dasaratha to come to the heaven for his, Indra’s help] did not throng the outer courtyards of Saketa. The ministers were not instructed to protect the earth (during the absence of the king). Even without all these, Dasaratha, overpowered by grief, abruptly went to heaven, even without looking for a conveyance. 134.
Then, as the extreme ends of the directions resounded with the wailings of the ladies of the harem-- wailings full of praises of Dasaratha, censures of Kaikeyi and eulogies of the noble qualities of Rama… 135.
The expanse of the sky became ‘arajakam’ (moonless) and ‘mlanasadgunam’ (The stars became dim.). (The entire earth also, as if by seeing this state of the sky, became ‘arajakam’ (kingless) and ‘mlanasadgunam’ (The good people became grief-stricken.). 136.
In the morning, the ministers, upon Vasishtha’s words, put the king’s body in an oil tub and sent messengers to the Kekaya country with instructions to bring Bharata immediately, without telling him the news about the king. 137.
The messengers reached the city of ‘the lord of the horses’ (i.e.Aswapati, the king of Kekaya), by path shortened by the horses swifter than wind and related the orders of the teacher i.e., Vasishtha, to Bharara who was already pining because of a bad dream. 138.
Bharata, apprehensive because of the bad omens, obtained his maternal grandfather, Yudhajit’s consent and reached Ayodhya in a few days. 139.
Observing closely that the city was not busily trodden by the people as before, Bharata became very much surprised and, along with the messengers entered his father’s residence which was not very much different from a burial ground. 140.
Not finding his father there, he went to his mother’s house, bowed to her and enquired, “Where has my father gone?” Then, she (Kaikeyi) told Bharata these cruel words. 141.
“Rama, together with Sita and Lakshmana, went to the forest to comply with your father’s order. Later, your father died. Now, you can enjoy the rival-less kingdom freely.”142.
With these words, Kaikeyi made Bharata greatly perturbed in the mind just as a peahen,with her cry, makes a great serpent pertured. 143.
Bharata cried for long, and, with impaired discretion, said to Kaikeyi. 144.
“Because of the multitude of your sins with terrible results, you are no more a mother to our four brothers. So, hereafter, mothers having children will term you as the mother of ill-fame causing misery to the ears.” 145.
Then, diverting his looks from her face, he spoke to his younger brother, Satrighna. 146.
“Alas! How can the fire-god who is worshipped by the sinless in all sacrifices be called ‘asrayasah’ (one who devours his shelters i.e. the firewood) when this lady who has entered the extensive solar race only to scorch it and cause intense pain and grief to the peoples’s minds? 147.
“Even the divine cow, a mother of a hundred children, shed tears when she saw one of her sons (an ox) fatigued by hard and continuous toil. Then, tell
me, how can mother Kausalya, a mother of only one son, overcome this grief? 148.
“This woman, like a female serpent, (‘varayuga rasanabhyam’) with her two tongues in the form of two boons, devoured the life of the (‘narendra’) king who, (kaalayogaat) because of bad times, (‘amantrah’) lacked proper advice, just as a female serpent, (‘varayuga rasanabhyaam’) with her two tongues in the form of two boons, , devours the life of (‘narendra’) a snake-charmer who, (kaalayogaat) because of bad times, (‘amantrah’) became deoid of the mystic charm. So it is better for her to stay from the city and live in some burial ground full of anthills. 149.
“Alas, how was this wicked tempered woman born in the Kekaya race, like a poisonous creeper in a mango grove, when there are a number of races of carnivorous demons, suitable for her nature?” 150.
The heroic and virtuous Bharata, along with his younger brother, came out of the hell-like house of Kaikeyi saying, “My mother has become devoid of popular morals.” 151.
Then, he, along with the ministers, went to Kausalya who was intent upon ascending the funeral pyre along with her husband, and stopped her from doing so by a hundred oaths. He, then, performed, according to the instructions of Vasishtha, the obsequies of Dasaratha, a performer of numerous sacrifices, in the manner befitting a sacrificer. 152.
Bharata, after performing his duties, requested the ministers with folded hands to permit him to go to the forest where his brother (Rama) was residing, more so because his father is now dead. 153.
But, being entreated by Kausalya, Sumitra and the harem, he came home. 154.
Then, after the lapse of fourteen days (during which the obsequies were completed and the period of impurity due to the death of a relative is completed), the ministers, along with Vasishtha, the priest and well-wisher of the solar race, and the elderly citizens requested Bharata, who had performed the obsequies as ordained, to wear the crown. 155
Bharata replied to those that were pressing upon him: 156.
“Why so many words? Your orders cannot be transgressed. So, I will certainly wear the crown departing from the noble trend set by Lakshmana, only if there is no space enough for a hut (for me to live) in the vast Dandakaranya.” 157.
Saying this, he set off with a mind anxious to serve Rama. 158.
Suddenly, the whirl-wind named Manthara came out of the king’s palace-- Manthara who created wickedness (‘pamsulatwa’) in the guileless (‘anupathi’) behaviour of good persons (‘satpathe’)-- Manthara who caused adversity (‘pratikulya’) to the happiness (‘saukhya’) of the conducting the lives (‘nayana’) of the people (‘jana’)-- Manthara, the whirl-wind which created harm due to dust (‘pamsulatwa’) to the comfort (‘saukhya’) of the eyes (‘nayana’) of the people (‘jana’). Manthara who was elated (‘udghurnamana’) and wicked with a crooked gait (‘kutilagati’) (because of her physical deformity) -- Manthara, the whirlwind which was rising up and above (‘udghurnamana’) moved in a twisted way (‘kutilagati’). 159.
Kausalya averted Satrighna (younger brother of Lakshmana who was the younger brother of Rama) who caught her (Manthara) hair by his hand and was about to kill her. 160.
Then, Bharata set off from the city together with the harem along the path levelled by the engineers, making the ethereal Mandakini (Ganga) muddy by the up surging clusters of dust rising from the earth pounded by the feet of the streaming men, elephants and horses and chariots. He then crossed the river Ganga with the consent (help) of Guha whose noble qualities were praised by Sumantra. Later, he saluted the sage Bharadwaja, keeping his vast army at a distance from the entrance of the hermitage. 161.
The pleased Bharadwaja saw Bharata and his mothers individually, welcomed his armies inside the hermitage and gave them a fitting hospitality. 162.
Bharadwaja, who, just by the contraction of his brows, made all the gods his servants, gave an hospitality to all the members of the army-- an hospitality
which, even the gods, after performing great penance and enjoying the fruits thereof , crave to have, even for a moment-- the luxuries created by the sage for the pleasure of the soldiers. 163.
Thus, spending that day, equal to a hundred days, they, following the directions of the sage, entered the surroundings of the Citrakuta forest 164.
Bharata left his army (at a distance) and, assisted by Guha, searching for Rama here and there, at last, found the hermitage of Rama with great excitement. The hermitage was noticeable even from a distance itself by the wind carrying the fragrance of the oblations and the scent of the smoke. It was frequented by fearless and un-fleeing animals like the deer. It was being strewn by the flowing offerings being showered by the invisible-bodied forest nymphs. The tumult of Lakshmana’s bowstring was audible from its vicinities-- the tumult which acted as a mystical incantation driving away all the devils and demons. The surroundings of it (the hermitage) were compact with ascetic householders living in the newly built cottages. Garments of bark and skin were hanging from the branches of the trees around. It had a platform on which Sita used to sit and which was being adorned by an incessant shower of flowers plucked from the branches of divine trees and showered by the sprout-like hands of the armies of the lord of the gods. Swords, bows and quivers were visible in a portion of the cottage. It had a place set apart where roots, bulbs and fruits brought and stored by Lakshmana was intent up on serving the guests. It was marked by the continuous lotus-like footprints of Sita. It surpassed the beauty of Ayodhya. (Such a hermitage, Bharata found.) 165.
Bharata saw Rama in that forest-- Rama, the abode of peace; Rama, unapproachable by those who had never done virtuous deeds; Rama, dark in colour like new clouds; Rama, the lotus-eyed; Rama, wearing bark-garments; Rama, sporting a chaplet of the mass of twisted matted hair; Rama, having arms like the body of the lord of serpents; Rama, lustrous with his natural splendour; Rama, the constant companion of Sita. 166.
Bharata made obeisance to Sita-- Sita who was by the side of Rama; Sita whose birth was conditioned by the sacrifice of King Janaka; Sita who was like
the nascent crescent of the moon; Sita who was conferring upon the forests, by their good luck, the state of perfect confidantship to Ayodhya by making them (the forests) familiar with the imprints of her lotus-like feet. 167.
Bharata saw Lakshmana-- Lakshmana, in whom the epithet of Ramanuja (younger brother of Rama), an epithet unattainable by anybody else, became fixed in the world even though he was born of Sumitra (i.e. not of Kausalya); Lakshmana, with whose eyes a pair of lotuses could have been compared, had they remained blossomed in the nights also. (i.e. Lakshmana had no sleep even in the nights. Lotuses remain blossomed during day-time ony.) 168.
Bharata approached Rama with great excitement like a deer scorched and thirsty, stricken by the severe summer in a desert, approaches a lotus-tank full of nectar-like water, found by the grace of God. He fell upon Rama’s feet, wept for long and made Rama also, along with Sita and Lakshmana, swoon with grief, by telling him the tidings of Dasaratha. 169.
(Meanwhile) Rama’s mothers also got there and they wept for long.170.
As their ocean of grief was transgressing over the shore, Vasishtha, the knower of the self, acted like Agastya. (Who drank the waters of ocean) (i.e. pacified the grief.). 171.
After Rama regained consciousness and performed the rites of offering libations (to Dasaratha) fittingly in the divine river, Ganga, as per the directions of the family teacher, Vasishtha, Bharata tried to make him (Rama) return to Ayodhya. 172.
Befitting the solar race, corresponding to the multitude of his noble traits, congenial to the form of fame, agreeable to the worthy tradition, suitable to his former fortune, undeserving censure by the world, resembling the ‘vedic’ learning-- revealing such purport was Bharata’s submission. 173.
Bharata prostrated reverentially before Rama who had no liking for the crown, the symbol for the attainment of riches transient like the lightning-- the crown which was sported and discarded by hundreds of kings. Bharata’s head (the noblest organ of the body) followed the practice of lying down upon the earth
to get one’s request granted and prayed Rama’s feet thus: “Please embellish me with your two sandals.” 174.
Rama rejected the request of Bharata saying,” Both you and I should carry the order of our father who always spoke the truth.” 175.
When the request of sage Jabali also became futile, 176.
Bharata, the foremost among those who knew what is beneficent, prayed for and obtained the priceless pair of crowns in the form of Rama’s sandals. 177.
Then, he (Bharata), along with his younger brother (Satrighna), returned to Ayodhya obeying his elder brother’s command. Rama also, along with Lakshmana, entered the deep forest carrying out his father’s command.178.
Bharata, after crossing a number of kingdoms, reached his kingdom; but he became averse to worldly pleasures and wore bark garments. 179.
He stayed in a village named Nandi saying, “I will not enter Ayodhya until the return of my revered brother, and, if he delays exceeding the date, I will please my spirit by taking refuge in the fire immediately. 180.
Rama also, in order to avoid (unnecessary) skirmishes with the demons, entered the deep forest, as advised by the sages (lit. the wealthy by peace). 181.
Rama, gazed at by the wide-eyed fearless wild deer with interest, even uninterested in ‘kusa’ grass, visited the naturally great hermitage of the great sage Atri and received the affectionate hospitality of the sage whose heart was filled with joy. 182.
The sage’s wife, Anasuya, also pleased Sita with her ornaments. 183.
Rama, the scion of the Raghu race, entered the Dandaka forest as the scorching sun enters the multitude of clouds to destroy the enemies (the demons), the moons to the mind-red-lotuses of the earth-belle. 184.
Thus ends the book of Ayodhya Kanda in the worthy Champu Ramayana written by the king of Vidarbha.


The mighty Rama, the beloved one of Sita, entered the great forest and, like a moving sapphire mountain, wandered about armed with the bow like a cloud with lightning in the sky, to extinguish the night-roamer-conflagrations, i.e. the demons, with arrowshowers. 1
A demon named Viradha suddenly blocked the path of Rama and Lakshmana who were making visits to the hermitages of sages and getting, by the hospitality of the sages, relieved of the fatigue caused by walking-- hermitages which are rich with ponds and which could be located by the fragrance of the oblations, mixed with that of the exudations oozing from the clusters of trees whose trunks were made rough by the rubbing of the itching trunks and cheeks by the elephants. 2.
He (Viradha), the son of Satahrada, of terrible appearance with rage, and armed with a trident, the points of which were decorated with hundreds of hearts of deer and the carcasses of other animals snatched away Sita and said to the two sons of Dasaratha. 3.
“Who are you, youngsters? Where from did you come? Your mode of life appears to be perverted because of the bark-garments on the bodies, matted hair over the heads and the fierce arms in hands. Where your appearance and where this belle with rich ornaments, equalling a divine lovely creeper?” 4.
Rama told him about his lineage, and, getting enraged by seeing Sita shuddering in the lap of Viradha, along with Lakshmana, shot arrows into the chest of the demon. 5.
But the arrows became blunt upon his boon-armour bestowed on him by Lord Brahma, Then, he (Viradha) set down Sita and shot his spear on Rama.6.
Rama’s arrow immediately cut off the sharp pointed spear and also the heart-pain of the foes of Viradha, the residents of heaven, i.e. the gods. 7.
Viradha fell upon Rama and Lakshmana violently with rage, took them upon his shoulder, carrying them like the Vindhya Mountain carrying the sun and the moon, and set off towards the south as if to compensate for having blocked their way. 8.
Then Rama said to Lakshmana who was intent upon killing Viradha. 9.
“The path of the demon is the same as ours. So, let him go freely along the path. Don’t kill him.” 10.
However, seeing Sita crying piteously, “O demon, devour me and leave those two”, the two made the demon’s burden of theshoulders lighter (by cutting off his arms) with their swords. 11.
When the demon did not give up his life even after the creation of windows to his chest, (i.e. the great wounds made,) the two brothers began to create a pit large enough to bury the body of the demon, in the earth which was too hard to be dug with the strength of the shoulders, but was made soft enough to be dug moistened by the flow of the demon’s blood. 12.
Immediately the demon got back his memory (of his previous birth) and related to Rama. 13.
His birth in the ‘Gandharva’ race, his violently attempting to embrace Rambha and the calamity that befell him in the form of Kubera’s curse to become a demon, and also his (Viradha’s) death to be effected in the same way (i.e. by burying in a pit). 14.
Rama pushed his (Viradha’s) body hit by the arrows into the pit and made him attain his original position of a songster (‘Gandharva’), so that he can relate to heaven that the demon’s slaughter had been performed and his body can tell the same tidings to the abode of the serpents (the nether-world). 15.
Then, the lord of the Raghu race went to the hermitage of the revered sage Sarabhanga, who was, just then, invited by Indra to resort to heaven. 16.
But a desire arose in the mind of the sage Sarabhanga, whose desireless nature blunted even the arrows of Manmatha, the mind-born, to see the son of the ten-charioted one (Rama, the son of Dasaratha) even after seeing the thousand-eyed one (Indra). 17.
The sage worshiped Rama, who stayed in his hermitage, with hospitality, and thus attained the eternal position (salvation) by throwing his body, purified by the presence of Rama, like an oblation sanctified by hymns, into the blazing fire. 18.
Then, moving from those quarters according to the instructions of the great saint, Sutikshna, Rama anxiously went to Agastya’s hermitage, the expanses of which were covered with multitudes of trees causing an impression of clusters of dark clouds hanging there to obtain refuge in Agastya with a fear of lack of water because of his (Agastya’s) drinking away all the waters of the oceans. 19.
Rama said to Sita, “O lotus-eyed, this is the hermitage of Agastya, who is the abode of innumerable miracles-- Agastya, in whose lotus-like hand the ocean, the husband of all the rivers, attained the state of a nectar drop. 20.
“This wayside ‘sallaki’ tree, with branches bent down due to the great weight of the hand (trunk) of the mighty ichored elephant, is imitating, by
the loss of its (the tree’s) height, the state of the Vindhya Mountain shrunken because of the placing of the great sage’s hand. 21.
“The pythons are informing the fate of the demon Vatapi to the other demons, through the wild elephants which entered into their (the pythons’) mouths mistaking them (the pythons’ mouths) to be thoroughfares, and are rolling in their (the pythons’) stomachs unabile to come out. 22.
“These clouds, unable to move above in the sky, are merely hanging like bisons in a pond-- the clouds, which are scattered away by Agastya, the vessel-born, with his one hand, in the fashion of driving away the flies, while sipping the ocean taken into the hollowed palm of the other hand.” 23.
Rama, thus, surprised and gladdened by viewing the forest, approached the vicinity of the hut, and, ushered in by the sage’s disciples, saw the venerable Agastya, husband of Lopamudra. Agastya, whose feet were adored by all the worlds-- Agastya, who, like Lord Brahma, the lotus-born, was surrounded by the gods and great sages-- Agastya, who has transformed Nahusha, tainted by adultery (‘bhujangabhava’) into a serpent (‘bhujanga’) and humbled him (Nahusha) with his (Agastya’s) angry hiss-- Agastya, whose hand and belly robbed the height and depth of the Vindhya mountains and the ocean which could obstruct the passage of the birds, sun and stars and other heavenly bodies (all ‘khagas’) with their height and vastness and which were impregnable with forests and waters-- Agastya, who had deprived Vatapi of his pride with his (Agastya’s) gastric fire-- Agastya, the husband of Lopamudra-- Agastya, who was the submarine fire which emptied the ocean, the husband of all the rivers-- Agastya, the great Brahmin-- Agastya, who had overcome all the desires (‘asas’) but was attracted towards the south direction (‘asa’)-- Agastya, who was born only because of his virtue (pun on the word ‘vrisha’ meaning both virtue and a bull) but was born in a pitcher. 24.
Rama, the treasure of valour, mentioning his (Rama’s) own name, bowed before Agastya with pleasure-- Agastya, who was endowed with a splendour which destroys ignorance and wickedness (‘tamas’), like the sun’s splendour which destroys the darkness (‘tamas’)-- Agastya, who, with his
austerities, was also endowed with the splendour (‘Lakshmi’) of brahminhood (‘brahmi’). (Pun on the absurdity of Lakshmi belonging to Brahma). 25.
Rama received from the greatly pleased sage, along with his (the sage’s) blessings, the bow of Vishnu, the mystical missile of Brahma, a pair of quivers of Indra, a golden sheath and a sword. Later, as per his (Agastya’s) command, he (Rama) went to Pancavati (a cluster of five Banyan trees) situated near the bank of Godavari. 26.
There he saw the mountain-like king of eagles with an extensive pair of wings—the eagle-king, who was an unequal abode of valour and a replica of Garuda. 27.
Jatayu told Rama about his (Jatayu’s) lineage and said, “I am your father’s friend.” Thus Jatayu removed Rama’s doubt that he (Jatayu) might be the Mainaka Mountain himself who, leaving the sea, which was made waterless by the sage Agastya’s drinking it away, was taking refuge with the same Agastya. 28.
Rama treated Jatayu with reverence due to Dasaratha-- Jatayu, the descendant of the sage Kasyapa and the younger brother of Sampati. Rama spent some time in Pancavati residing in a hut made of leaves by his younger brother. 29.
Then, once winter came during which the valour of Manmatha excelled. The rice fields became tawny with clusters of ripe golden rice ears. Dewdrops appeared in leaf-cup-tumblers resembling the battle-drink prepared for the expedition of Manmatha, the five-arrowed. The winter nullified the pleasure of the moonlight. It made the anointment of the sandal paste less desirable. It made the halls of moonlight inattractive. It created disinterestedness in the moon-stoned floors. It caused a dislike in enjoying the window breeze. It resulted in disinterestedness in the vicinities of tanks and wells. It produced an aversion for the evenings. It increased neglect for water-sports. It gave birth to contempt for lotus-garlands. It made the garden-strolls offending. It made the deep innermost rooms of the houses with walls built of large bricks, fine curtains, rugs soft like the down on the stomachs of rabbits, the smoke from the black incense of
‘agaru’, anointment of the saffron, and stoves full of smokeless charcoal-- all these desirable. The days became dusty with the atomised dewdrops. The season proved to be the sub-marine fire for the lotuses. The dancing girls avoided biting (by the paramours) because of the wounded lower lips, wounded due to the severe cold of the winter. The water taverns lost their splendour like the body of the dancing girls whose youth was lost. Fans were given rest. Heat hid itself in the youthful women’s plump breast-fortresses. The sun was not much frightful even to the owls (which are naturally afraid of sunlight). The moon became less propitious even to the partridges (‘cakoras’ which live upon the moonlight). The lakes were not much liked even by the swans. The autumn destroyed the dwellings of the Goddess Lakshmi (lotuses) together with the leaves and buds, as if out of ill-will towards her because she, the pitiless, did not even once glance at the hopeless poor beggars (those who were alone, away from their beloveds) who protected their heart-lotuses from the peril of the dew by keeping their hands crossed across their chests-- the poor beggars, who, with their lips throbbing incessantly due to the rattling of the teeth, were as though chanting charms capable of destroying the severe cold-devil-- the poor beggars who protected their bodies with the hairy rugs bestowed upon them by the kindly Lord Brahma in the form of constant horripilations devouring their bodies. The autumn was tearing away the hearts of the travellers (who were away from their beloveds) by the abundance of dew resembling the sweating of the limbs of the sky-lady which was scorched by Manmatha’s sharp arrows (lotuses) resembling the rays of he moon plucked by the ichored elephant in the form of the sky with his hand (trunk). Thus did the autumn excel.30.
The lovelorn loveable women, scorched by the fire of separation (from their lovers), could find out neither the endings of the nights nor the shore to the sea of grief. 31.
At that time, Surpanakha approached the elder brother of Lakshmana, Rama, who was seated inside the cottage. 32.
At a time when the expanses of the sky and horizons were shrouded with showers of dew-- when the season acted like the death-god to those ladies
who were away from their beloveds-- ladies with exceedingly warm areas of breasts, the lust-blind demoness wanted to have Sita’s husband as her (Surpanakha’s) husband, just as a female kite takes the pleasure-lotus of Goddess Lakshmi for meat. 33.
Refuted by Rama saying, “Know that this person (i.e. I) is the husband of Sita alone. It is better for you to choose my younger brother who is super-humanly strong, youthful and away from his wife.” Surpanakha approached Lakshmana and spoke as desired. 34.
Then, told by Lakshmana, “Noble lady, I am the servant of my venerable brother. Verily, it does not behove a woman, and more so one born in a noble family, to become the wife of a servant. So, love him only. He will certainly accept you discarding Sita, the princess of Videha (one devoid of a proper body), who is devoid of terrible strength (who is devoid of cruel nature), and is unskilled to roam in the fearful forests.” she foolishly thought that his advice was agreeable. 35.
She became confused in mind at the rejoiceing of viewing the two sons of Dasaratha. She was brought to the state of a cow, which got tired by just osclating to and fro confounded by the equally green grassy meadows on both the sides of a river. 36.
The lustful sister of Ravana, Surpanakha, tormented by Manmatha, the foe of the demon Surpa, (otherwise known as Sambara) i.e. again approached Rama, the bull-shouldered. 37.
Observing Sita’s great fortune, unattainable by any other woman,-- fortune of having for herself the handsomeness of Rama’s form, she (Surpanakha) pondered thus: 38.
“Why has not Lord Brahma (the lotus-born), the father of our ancestor, created this person (me) like the wife of this ocean of beauty (Rama). Let it be so. But, again, alas, why has he (Brahma) created this beauty, equally wasteful like the forest moonlight, in this man who is untouched by love and loves to dwell in the forest”. 39.
Lakshmana stopped Surpanakha, the mean sister of Ravana ) who was unrestrainedly lustful desiring an unattainable person (Rama) and was about to carry away Sita. He, then, armed as he as, forcibly made wide the passage ways of the wind of her breath, which were full of surging lust and anger competing with each other. (He cut off her nose.) 40.
Then, the demon Khara, a resident of Janasthana (a place inhabited by people) and a roamer in the forefronts of the battle-fields, upon seeing and hearing the insult done to his younger sister, in her face and words, sent an army of fourteen thousand demons arrayed in fourteen thousand ways and protected by fourteen commanders to capture Rama and Lakshmana. 41.
Rama, observing the oncoming army of demons, guided Surpanakha, turned into a spy, instructed Lakshmana to protect Sita and, like an ‘arani’ (fire-producing wooden utensil) the fire in which lies unrevealed before friction, performed the massacre of the demons in such a way that, 42.
The sky became room-less (crowded) with birds such as eagles, crows, vultures etc. come from all the regions by the orders of the king of the eagles (Jatayu) to cleanse the paths of the hermitages-- birds which carried to every cottage the various parts of the bodies of the demons cut to pieces by Rama’s sharp arrows and exhibited them as if saying. “These are the hands that killed the hermits. These are the jaws that were delighted in speaking harshly. These are the eyes that were unscrupulous in looking at others’ wives. These are the pairs of legs skilled in roaming about the hermitages.” 43.
After Trisirasa (the three-head one) was beheaded, and Dushana, (the polluter) polluted the hermitages, even after his death, with the foul-smelling flow of the marrow of the flesh oozing from his corpse, Khara, the ferocious one) ferocious with his terrifying looks, challenged Rama for a battle. 44.
Then, a duel ensued, the victory and defeat in which could not be determined, even by the learned, and the aiming and releasing of arms in which could not be observed even by the gods who have no winking of the eyes. 45.
Khara took a bow and, tired, as if, by the frequent bending and straightening of it, broke the old bow in Rama’s hand, thereby prompting him
(Rama) to take the bow, once belonging to Lord Vishnu, the bow that could easily bring the battle to an end, the bow that was fit forth Brahmastra to be fixed upon. 46.
He (Rama), with face reddened like lac with the fire of rage, took the bow given to him by the sage Agastya.47.
As the bow, which was cruel to the enemies, was taken up by Rama, the topmost of the solar race, the battle between Khara and Rama came to an end in an jnstant just as the one between a donkey (a ‘Khara’) and a sharp-nailed lion (‘nakharayudha). 48.
Manthara, with her qualities, became the first recipient of such blessings given by the sages residing in the forests cleansed by the death of Khara. Rama, the embodiment of valour, the moon of the race of Manu, along with his younger brother, was only the later recipient. 49.
Firstly, Manthara, then, the queen, Kaikeyi, then, the two boons, and then, the word of the king who was worried about the loss of virtue; these were the names given to the steps to the fortunes of the three worlds afraid of Ravana.50.
Surpanakha, like a she-devil, fell before the ten-headed Ravana and, as if, to make Lanka also devastated (‘vijanasthana’, place uninhabited by people) like the ‘Janasthana’ (place inhabited by people-- i.e. the Dandaka forest, which was already devastated) related to him the truth about Rama and Lakshmana, the beauty of Sita’s body and the insult done to her which became the cause for the death the army consisting of fourteen thousand demons, along with Khara and others. 51.
The demon-emperor, of renowned strength, having seen and heard his sister who was given bodily punishment in the Dandaka and the story of Rama (having seen Surpanakha and having heard about Rama), became enraged. 52.
The immoral Ravana sent eight demons to Janasthana (to rule over) and went to Marica’s residence to take him, turned into a golden deer, along with him (Ravana) to kidnap the doe called Sita. 53.
Marica heard the plan of Ravana, and, when he (Ravana) could not be diverted (from his obstinacy), even by hundreds of efforts, thought that Subahu was more fortunate. Then, he, having no other recourse, agreed to his request, took on himself the form of a golden deer and entered Pancavati to deceive Sita. 54.
Ravana kept his chariot in the sky and stayed there waiting for separation of the sons of Dasaratha (Rama and Lakshmana). 55.
The deer i.e. Marica, grieved at the sight of the profusely spread skulls of the demons (killed by Rama), shed tears for them and entered the forest and acted (like a deer) which relished the sprouts of the ‘kusa’ grass which were thorns wounding the path-goers feet. 56.
Then Rama, at the request of Sita, took his bow and followed him (Marica) to capture him. The death-god thought that that was the proper moment and waited with wide opened mouth to swallow the one (Maricha) that escaped during the sacrifice of Viswamitra. 57.
The demon dragged Rama far away tempting him with hopes (of catching the deer) and, struck by Rama’s arrow, gave up the body of the golden deer simultaneously crying out, in a voice resembling that of Rama, “I am dead.” 58.
Hearing the voice, Sita became broken-hearted and, due to her love for her husband, not knowing what to do and what not to do, ordered Lakshmana, “Fetch out your brother.” 59.
Lakshmana bowed to her and said, “Revered lady, this your order is not proper. Unfortunately, a false notion is tormenting you. Who can believe in any danger from the insect-like demons befalling my revered brother who is the abode of valour and unequal wielder of the bow in the three worlds”. But Sita, baffled by confusion, admonished him very much with heart-piercing words. 60.
Lakshmana again said to his harsh-speaking sister-in-law: 61.
“Fair-faced lady, up to now you have been Sumitra to me. So, I had the pleasure of the company of my mother. But, unfortunately, speaking harsh
words, all of a sudden, you have become my middle mother also (Kaikeyi) in the forest.” 62.
Having spoken like this, as Lakshmana went near his brother, the demon-king, just waiting for an opportunity, left the chariot and, descending from the sky, approached the cottage in the red garb of a hypocritical mendicant, as if exhibiting his inner lust outwards also. 63.
The demon-king of unbalanced mind kidnapped Sita from Rama’s hermitage in the absence of Lakshmana, just as a mad dog steals a red lotus garland from a deserted temple mistaking as meat. 64.
The eagle-king, Jatayu, saw Dasaratha’s eldest daughter-in-law who was crying again and again, “O my lord, where are you delaying?” and casting tear-laden looks on all sides. He (Jatayu) blocked the path of Ravana in the forest with great rage saying, “You demon, don’t (kidnap Sita). Leave the crying lady.” 65.
Then a battle took place between the kings of the kites and the demons equal in valour and engaged in mutual blows. 66.
The bird, with his wings, hit the spears, darts, arrows, lances, tridents, bows, clubs etc. and, in no time, destroyed the horses charioteer, armour and wheels of Ravana’s chariot. 67.
Suddenly, struck by the demon's sword, the mighty bird fell down with wings cut off because of his partiality for Sita. 68.
Sita, while being carried away by Ravana on another chariot, threw down the bundle of her ornaments tied up in her yellow silk upper cloth on a hill with five monkeys on the peak, which appeared like a boy-bachelor hill with five tufts. The bundle of ornaments resembled the fire of Ravana’s valour as viewed by Sugriva. It appeared like a large meteor falling down foreboding the death of Vali. It created the impression of the disk of the sun visiting his son to instruct him to help Rama (and take his help in reciprocity.) 69.
The imprudent Ravana, unable to discern it as the downfall of his own splendour, carried Sita to the Asoka garden the ornament of Lanka.70.
The Asoka garden, surrounded by the demonesses, got Sita like a medicinal herb, which could extinguish the (future) fire of Hanuman’s tail. 71.
There, Rama acted like a tiger with the golden Marica-deer which was caught in Ravana’s words-net (killed Maricha) and, while returning, heard from his brother the happenings at he cottage and hurried to it eager to see Sita. 72.
Rama found the empty cottage and, losing his heart began to cry. The nymphs of the woods looked at him with tears in their eyes wondering what he is going to be. 73.
“Alas, she is not here. What has happened to her? I find here her footprints in confusion. Indeed, Sita, upon seeing me come without the deer, must have hid herself among the trees for a moment out of anger. 74.
“O fair-minded, fair-faced Sita, I roamed about Pancavati to fulfill your desire, as the foremost of the deluded folk, deceived. So, this is not the time for your anger. Is my face capable of enduring Sita’s separation? 75.
“O fawn-eyed Sita, if you have a fancy for a rare deer, I shall bring you even the deer from the moon-disk. Approach me. May the moon bear the resemblance with your face (blemish-less) until such a time that you again release the deer. 76.
“If Sita is alive, why does she not appear before me? She could not have been killed by the wild animals because the earth is not soaked with blood. She will never go without Rama for a walk on the sands of Godavari. Surely, by all means, she must have been swallowed by the demons. 77.
“If you have gone to pay obeisance to your father-in-law in another world (died), even jumping over the ordained time-limit, please make an appeal to him and call me also. Lakshmana alone can install Bharata on the kingdom.” 78.
Rama, crying so, could not stay steadfast, searching for his beloved in the forest; nor could Lakshmana. The ant-hill-born sage (Valmiki) alone is hard-hearted enough to relate such piteous story in his words. 79.
Jatayu, somehow holding his life almost about to depart, saw Rama and Lakshmana searching here and there for Sita and said: 80.
“O blessed one with long life, Ravana, cutting off my wings with the sword, threw me on the earth and carried away Sita.” 81.
The life-expired Jatayus at once attained the eternal position not a bit lesser than the one got by the sage Sarabhanga. He got the water of libation given by Rama’s hand, mixed with his tears, the libation, which could not be obtained even by Dasaratha. 82.
Then, as Rama set off towards the southern forest, a demoness, named Ayomukhi, approached Lakshmana (with lust) and got from his sword the attainment of Surpanakha. (Lakshmana cut off her nose and ears.) 83.
Then, Kabandha, true to his name (meaning head-less body), who got demonhood from the curse of the sage Sthula-siras, bound Rama and Lakshmana who were passing by the path of the Kraunca forest, with his arms terrifying like the bodies of the serpent-kings, 84.
The pair of Kabandha’s arms was cut off by the swords of Rama and Lakshmana easily, like the cutting off of the plantains. This produced profuse of tears from the she-demons’ eyes, which were unacquainted with tears. 85.
Then they buried his terrible body, as requeste by Kabandha himself, in the earth at the foot of the hill. Then, pleased by the expiry of the curse, Kabandha told Rama, “You can get Sita by making friendship with Sugriva, son of the Sun-god.” 86.
Kabandha, having thus shown Rama the way to Rsyamuka mountain, and resorting to heaven, Rama received the hospitality of Sabari, a woman-sage living in the hermitage of the sage Matanga., Then, he, upon her advice, reached the lake Pampa, passing through a forest pleasant with the cooing of various birds and charming with the roaming of various animals. He became greatly agitated Pampa by the breezes from the groves on its banks-- breezes which were fragrant by their contact with the blossomed lotuses-- breezes which were agreeable for the creeper-cradles of the wood-nymphs-- breezes which were laden with the ichor drops of the elephants engrossed in
sporting incessantly on the banks-- breezes the crests of which were moistened with the shower of drops of nectar raining from the bunches of flowers of the cupid-quiver-like mango trees grown on the banks. The breezes became the teachers instructing dance to the creeper-dancing girls. They were strengthened with the scent of the jasmines in the loosened chignons (tufts of hair) of the flower-women covetous of amorous sports in the creeper bowers expansive like trellises. They were the travel-provisions rich with the drops of water grinded by the flutter of the wings of the swans. Rama reached such Pampa (which was thus pleasant to those who are together with their beloveds but unpleasant to those who are separated from them.) 78.
Thus ends Aranyakanda, The Book of the Forest, in the venerable Champu Ramayana written by the king of Vidarbha.


Rama, the greatest of the Raghus, whose fame pervaded all the worlds, shivered due to the fever of separation (from his beloved Sita) and became distressed upon seeing Pampa, clear like the mind of good people. 1.
The wealth of spring, the vernal season, pervaded the bank of Pampa which consisted of groves of various trees. It was attractive with the sweet ‘pancama’ notes emanating from the beak-lutes of the freely roaming cuckoos. The ‘Madhavi’ creepers were horripilated (blossomed) due to the humming sound of the swarms of bees. Those separated from their lovers, due to the ever-bent
(darting arrows) bow of Manmatha, could not carry on their journeys due to the eer-bent bows of Manmatha (darting arrows). 2.
The minds and the bodies of the ladies endowed with shapely brows, ladies who were separated from as well as those who were associated with their lovers also, underwent the swings of the cradle. (The minds of the ladies who were separated from their lovers became unstable, whereas the bodies of those ladies who were associated with their lovers enjoyed the swings of the cradles.) 3.
The tremulous-eyed ladies gathered and stole with their hands and looks the flowers and minds of the groves and the men. (They gathered the flowers from the groves with their hands and stole the minds of the men with their looks.) 4.
During that season of the cupid’s-battles, Rama, roaming near Pampa, with aqn agitated heart, and ruminating about his beloved, spoke to Lakshmana: 5.
“Sita, was a powerful medicine during mental uneasiness, a friend during the play-time, a wife while giving oblations to the fire-triad, a princess during battles,a disciple while worshipping the deities, Brahmins and forefathers and a relative at the time of grief— what has she not become to me in this chilly forest. 9What might not have happened to her.) 6.
“The breeze, the intoxicated elephant, thrice frenzied with coolness, fragrance and sluggishness, which roams about the Malaya mountains and, goaded by the mahout, Manmatha, tramples the way-farers, i.e. those separated from their beloveds, is having the butting sport upon my mind.” 7.
Rama became emaciated unable to bear the pangs of separation (from Sita); but was able to maintain courage by the words of Lakshmana, who was skilled in composing the feelings of those who were agitated. Meanwhile, Sugriva saw them and taking them to be the spies of Valin, frisked far away. 8.
He consulted with his ministers and sent Hanuman, son of the wind-god, to ascertain their (Rama and Lakshmana) intention. 9.
Hanuman met Rama-- Hanuman who was the son of the Wind-god and the Sun-god by birth and education; (son of the Wind-god by birth and son of the Sun-god by education, he being a student of the Sun-god)-- Hanuman who had a mark (a dent on his cheek) made by Indra-- Hanuman who was the embodiment of the second (i.e. dark) half of the lunar month i.e. Ravana’s fame. 10.
He (Hanuman) took upon the form of a mendicant and spoke to them with modesty, ”Who are both of you, with charming forms, arrived in the forest? Though wielding colourful ‘jishnu’ bows (pun 1. victorious bows 2. Indra’s bows i.e. the rainbows), you are not clouds because the day is a ‘sudina’ (pun: 1.not a cloudy day 2. good day). Though sporting ‘siphas’ (1. aerial roots 2. matted hair and ‘valkala’ (1. bark 2. bark-clothes), you are not celestial trees because you can walk. Though endowed with looks, which scatter away ‘tamas’ (1. darkness 2. ignorance), you are not the sun and the moon because you are close to each other and yet have simultaneous brilliant effulgence. 11.
“Your young ascetic beauty, even in the apparel of penance, is shining like fragrance coming out from the reeds of ‘kusa’ grass. 12.
“My tongue is engaged (in talking) to usurp for itself the happiness of the ears which are anxious to relish the nectar of your story. 13.
“There is a monkey-king named Sugriva. 14.
“Know me as Anjaneya the son of Anjana and the wind-god. I, a ‘vanara’, Hanuman by name, disguised in the form of a mendicant, was sent by him (Sugriva), who has taken refuge on the mountain, Rsyamuka, because of the fear from his brother and who is desirous of having your friendship”. 15.
Upon hearing his (Hanuman’s) speech, which was a shower of nectar to the ears, the angelic-sage-like Rama embraced him, went along the path shown by him and made a fire-witnessed friendship with Sugriva which caused happiness to the world, 16.
As Hanuman joined Rama with the ‘hari’ (monkey) Sugriva who was ae ‘vaivaswata’ (son of the sun-god) and a ‘samavarti’ (one having an even character), Fate also decided to join Valin with ‘hari’ (Yama, the death-god) who
was a ‘vaivaswata’ (son of the sun-god) and who was a ‘samavarti’ (one who treats all equally). 17.
Then, Sugriva showed to Rama the ornaments, thrown down by Sita while being carried away by Ravana-- Rama who confided in him (Sugriva) at one, promised the killing of Valin and related (to Sugriva) his (Rama’s) anguish of separation (from Sita). 18.
Rama washed, with his tears, the ornaments, which his beloved used to wear, which became dusty because of lack of cleansing and which were presented by the monkey-chief. 19.
Then, Sugriva told the cause of his enmity with Valin to Rama who, after regaining composure with Laksmana’s exhortation, asked him (Sugriva) about it. 20.
“Long ago, a demon named Mayavin, brother of Dundhubhi, challenged Valin for a fight-- Valin who is the sun (mass of lustre) to the enemy-clans-darkness. But, with courage shaken because his (Valin’s) strength, he (Mayavin) fled and escaped into the depths of the serpent-world (under-world). 21.
I, stationed to guard the mouth of the cave by the proud and golden-necklaced Valin who chased him (Mayavin) into the cave, waited for long for his (Valin’s) reappearance. As a long time passed, upon noticing a foamy stream of blood full of lumps of flesh, I came to the conclusion that my brother might have been killed. 22.
“I closed the mouth of the cave with a huge boulder and, having given him libations together with a flow of tears, returned, stricken with grief, to Kishkindha. 23.
“I was made king (lit. sprinkled with water) by the ministers who learnt the happenings. Meanwhile, Valin killed Mayavin and, having broken the block against the mouth of the cave forcefully with his iron-like arms, returned to the city from the netherworld. The angered Valin expelled me from the city, though innocent and confounded-- me who prostrated and related the truth. 24.
“Chased by him, I fled (in all ddirections and at last) took shelter upon this mountain without any fear, the reason for which, please hear. 25.
“Long ago, a buffalo-shaped demon named Dundhubhi challenged Valin for a fight-Valin of great strength of arms; Valin who could shake all the mountains; Valin who could jump over the oceans. 26.
“Valin killed him and, proud of his strength, cast his carcass like a piece of cotton blown by a strong wind raging at the time of destruction of the worlds, in the precincts of the hermitage of the sage Matanga. 27.
“The sage’s hermitage became crimson-coloured with the raining drops of blood oozing from the body Dundhubhi thrown by Valin’s hands. The sage’s face also became equally red besmeared with anger. 28.
“Thus, certain that Rsyamuka is impregnable to Valin, because of the curse of the sage Matanga, I have been living here for a long time, forgetting the happiness of the city life. 29.
“Now, this wise Hanuman made me happy by making you a friend of me, just as a cool wet breeze makes happy a peacock which was afraid of a cloud taking it for a mass of smoke rising from a forest conflagration-- me, who was afraid even of you taking you for an enemy and lost heart.” 30.
Rama, having heard the woeful words of Sugriva, told him, “Gentleman, if it be so, don’t be afraid. My arrow will drink away the life of that monkey without losing any time.” Then he swept away the heavy body of Dundhubhi with his toe, for Sugriva’s confidence. But, as he (Sugriva) was not satisfied even with that act, he (Rama), as per his (Sugriva’s) request, cut off the seven ‘sala’ trees of huge dimensions with an arrow that could kill the demons-- the trees which were grown up by Lord Brahma to be the seven pillars to the seven worlds 31.
The arrow split the ridge of the nearby mountain also. 32.
Verily, the arrow, in the form of the sound produced by breaking the ridge, told Sugriva; “Break the bastions of Ravana’s ramparts just as I have broken the ridge of the mountain along with the ‘sala’ trees.” 33.
As Sugriva, with confidence in Rama, challenged Valin (for a duel), a hand-to-hand duel ensued, and just as an orator, unable to distinguish between the good and the bad persons from their appearance, remains silent in a court,
Rama, unable to discern between the two monkeys (Valin a d Sugriva) by their costumes and actions, could not discharge the arrow. 34.
Sugriva, unable to withstand the strength of Valin, became dejected and, casting his looks in the direction whence Rama’s arrow should emerge, and, losing heart, (pun: like one who has fallen upon bad times lookingin the direction the donor), fled away very far. 35.
The kind Rama, the greatest archer in the three worlds, found him (Sugriva) sitting mute and dejected on the mount Rsyamuka, and, desirous of knowing the difference (between the two brothers), tied a garland of recognition around his (Sugriva’s) neck like an infalliable medicinal herb which repels arrows. Then he (Rama) told him (Sugriva) to challenge Valin once again 36.
Accordingly, as Sugriva approached Kishkindha and roared like a cloud, Valin, due to the unsurpassability of Fate, disregarded Tara’s advice, began fighting (with Sugriva) and, struck in the wide chest by Rama’s sharp arrow, fell down upon the earth. 37.
Then Tara, coming to know about the happenings, came out of the city with tear-blinded eyes, embraced Valin and, made her own thigh a pillow to his head, Valin who was like an elephant-king confined in an elephant-trap, Valin who was looking at Sugriva fearlessly, Valin who raised his neck, but was unable to rise and was pressing his elbows against the earth (in order to rise), Valin whose body was coloured with the flowing blood, Vali who was engaged in talking with Rama who was standing nearby with his hand placed on the top of the bow, Valin who was like the ocean sans commotion, Vali who was like the sun about to set. Then she said to Rama: 38
“O fair-famed master of the human species, Tell me, how and why, due to my sin, you have given up your famous, and boundless kindness which was natural to you like the comforting coolness is to the moon. 39
“O Scion of the Raghu race, enemy of the demoness Tataka, considers me also as a demoness (and discharge and arrow at me) because I am still living even after my beloved has been brought to this state. You can get great merit by joining me with my beloved. 40
“O Rama, You have said here before in the assembly of people that it is common for the kings to hunt. O truth-speaker, please kill me, a female monkey, with an arrow. Does a hunter take pity for a doe or hind? 41
“Just as this your friend (Sugriva) who was afraid of this Vali once took refuse on the fearless mount Rsyamuka, so also now this my husband has taken refuse in the hill-fort in the form of my heart un-penetrable even for your arrows. 42
“I am not that Tataka (daughter of Suketu), nor the cluster of the seven sala trees, nor Valin, famous in the three worlds for his valour. I am Tara, the adamant-hearted and unsmashable with arrows. O Raghava, how can you be called an archer with out shooting at me? 43
“Alas, is boundless foolishness also natural like valour to the princes who are wealthy (leading a luxurious life) from birth itself? Because, while the monkey king, Valin, is safe in my heart, how is it that you are, (eager to kill him), standing with the bow in your hand (without usinng it)? (Why are you not discharging an arrow at my heart where he is hiding?)” 44
Valin, regained consciousness as if comforted by the sounds of the wailings, the sprinklings of the drops of tears and the incessant breezes of sighs of Tara who was weeping and whose tears became a string of pearls for her, Then he (Valin), who had subdued the demons with the strength of his arms, handed over his son, Angada to Rama, gave a golden necklace, which he was wearing, to Sugriva who was down cast with grief and gave up his life. 45
Then, the monkeys began wailing, “ O Valin, one whose strength of arms was praised by all the worlds, O lion, who was capable of killing the Golabha-Gandharva-elephants, O one, whose lengthy tail was a snake-charmer immobilising the bodies of Ravana’s arm-nakes, O Valin, where have you gone?” Crying in this way, the monkeys performed all the funeral rites to the corpse of Valin, as per Rama’s orders. 46
Then the bands of monkeys, Jambavan and others, anointed Sugriva with waters from golden pitchers, according to Rama’s orders. 47
As Sugriva was anointed by the Rama-black-cloud, the clouds also started anointing (i.e. raining) the earth as the queen of Sugriva. 48
Rama was requested by Sugriva to stay in Kishkindha. He also promised: “Noble sir, the search for the noble lady Sita will be carried on during the autumn.” 49
As Rama replied that it was forbidden for him to stay in a city, the request of Sugriva also received the same fate as that of Bharata. 50
The cloudy season acted like Krishna, son of Devaki, by making ‘Arjuna-vilasa’ the Arjuna tree blossom (bestowing happiness on Arjuna) and ‘Dhartarashtra-nirasana’ driving away the swans (vanquishing Kauravas, the sons of Dhritarashtra). 51
The multitudes of clouds blocked all the directions and roared thereby causing hindrance to Rama’s desire to wage war (against Ravana). It was as though they (the clouds) developed enmity towards Rama thinking “ This Rama is mocking at our fine form i.e., colour, with the brightness of his body. Even let it be so. He has killed Valin (the son of Indra) disregarding our lord Indra.” 52
The new clouds (‘Upacita jivadharas’) caused showers of water, spread through the sky (‘Satpathabhajas’), reduced the heat (‘Nirasta santapas’) of the summer and were perturbed by the eastern wind (‘Paurastya mahabalakulitas’). They were like by kings who improved the sources of living (‘Upacita jivadharas’) of the people, moved along the good path i.e., had worthy and noble character (‘Satpathabhajas’) and removed the distress of their people (‘Nirastasantapas’) but were confounded by the great strings of Ravana, the grandson of Paulastya (‘Paulastya mahabalakulitas’). 53
During the rainy season, the sky became multi coloured with the rain-bow. The expansive directions resounded with the thunders of the clouds. The flocks of swans became dull with the blowing of the winds from the Kadamba forests. The sky was as if devoured by the clusters of clouds. The earth was full of mushrooms. The forests were covered with the blossomed shrubs of wild jasmines. Rama, observing the mood of the rainy season became enraged and said to Lakshmana. 54
This rainy season is stealing (destroying) away the steadfastness of the proud youths with the clouds black like Siva’s throat. The winds drenched in the showers are blowing very cool increasing love-sickness. How can this terrible separation (from my beloved) be endured? 55
The shrill cries of the peacocks, which are the victory trumpets of the Cupid, signifying great battles, are resounding on all sides. The cries (‘Kekah’) of the peacocks are questioning: “Which men (Ke) which women (Kah) can overcome this anguish of separation during these days darkened by the clouds?” 56
The sky has become spacelessly crowded with the fragrant wild jasmine flowers blown by the winds made thick with the showers of rain emanating from the inner depths of the clouds. 57
The showers reaching the earth are appearing like the branch-roots of the black-cloud-leaved sky -banyan tree. 58
O Lakshmana, look! The rivers are growing larger day by day with increased floods and the flowers from the trees on the banks. (Young ladies full of love-sentiment, become seasoned with the monthly menstruation and are happy.) 59
Indeed the clouds have devoured the sub-marine fire also along with the waters of the ocean. Burnt in the stomachs, they are now vomiting that fire in the form of lightning. 60
As the days of the rainy season were some-how passed over by Rama in this way, gradually the clouds became white like the colour of the body (due to bloodless weakness) 61
The bow of Indra i.e. rainbow disappeared from the sky because it was not proper for it to stay when Rama himself is about to wield his bow. 62
The terrible thundering of the masses of clouds also withdrawn because the time for the twang of Rama’s bow was nearing. The breeze fragrant by passing through the bushes of Ketaka, Kutaja and Neepa was defeated (became unnoticed) by his breath and became mild. 63
The dancing girl in the guise of the rainy season left the stage of sky after giving pleasure to the audience i.e., the world with her dance i.e. alleviating the heat. Within no time, the orchestra of the clouds also stopped and the lights of lightening were put off. 64
Gradually, the rivers became dwindled unable to withstand the future swelling of the monkey-armies Likewise, the swans began to roam about the world freely signifying that the noble kings will move about uninterrupted in Lanka as the bad days i.e. the rainy days were over. 65
Thus as the rainy season, which robs the intellect of the people, separated (from their beloveds) came to an end. 66
The enraged Lakshmana went to Kishkindha as per the orders of Rama to cure Sugriva of his blindness of lust which stayed in him for a long time—Sugriva, who had become a light weight with the juice of friendship leaking out of him through the channels from the holes made in his heart by the arrows cast by the cupid; and thus who was unable to honour the promise made by him (to Rama to search for Sita). 67
Though Sugriva got the report from Angada that the enraged Lakshmana arrived, he did not at once become alert, being exhausted immersed in the pleasures of cupid. But he awoke with the buzzle and clamour of the monkey-armies frightened at the sight of Lakshmana. Finally, he got composure by the influence of two ministers named Plaksha and Prabhasa. 68
Then, even as he was pondering about the cause of Lakshmana’s anger, the twang of Lakshmana’s bowstring resounded through all directions. 69
Sugriva got terrified with the loud twang of the bow and, with face down-cast, left his seat immediately just as a snake gets terrified greatly losing delight by (hearing) the thunder of new clouds (rain-giving clouds) which signify the end of the heat (of the summer). (The serpent gets terrified since it knows that the peacock, which kills serpents, gets delighted by the thunder of the clouds.) 70
Sugriva regained his courage when Hanuman explained to him that Lakshmana was sent by his angry brother, Rama, to spur him (Sugriva) to
perform the promised act (of searching Sita). Then Sugriva sent Tara to pacify Lakshmana. 71
Sugriva’s house (‘Nisantam) which lost the majesty of a king (‘Rajatejah’) because of his addiction to wine (‘Varunibhajana’)-- the house from which Tara came out (‘Nishkranta Taram’), the house, the malady of sluggishness of which had been allayed (‘Upasantatamovikaram’)-- had become equal to the dawn i.e., calm when the friendly Lakshmana (‘Mitre’) who treads the virtuous path (‘Satpathabhaji’) entered with a hope about the promise made previously (‘Poorvasaya’) equal to the dawn (‘Nisantam’) which had lost the lustre of the moon (‘Nihnutarajatejah’) who slid to the west (‘Varunibhajana’)-- the dawn from which stars had disappeared (‘Nishkranta taram’), the gloom of darkness (‘Upasantatamovikaram’) of which had mitigated when the Sun (‘Mitre’) who adorns the starry path (‘Satpathabhaji’) i.e., the sky-- arose on the eastern direction (‘Poorvasaya’). 72.
That lady approached Lakshmana and said thus: 73
“O Lakshmana (son of Sumiyra), an old misery of the forest-wandering Sugriva, which was caused by Valin (the son of Indra, the lord of the deities), was removed by the arrow of Rama, the slayer of Khara, the arrow which demolished the sala trees. Now his (Sugriva’s) another vice caused by the arrow of cupid (the son of Upendra, Vishnu lit. the younger brother of Surendra) has been removed by just the twang of the string of your (Rama’s younger brother) bow.” 74
Then Sugriva along with Lakshmana whose anger was pacified by the appeasing words of Tara, approached Rama with reverence and, with folded hands, submitted thus: 75
“O lord, All the monkey armies stationed at various mountain ranges had already been gathered together by Hanuman. You will certainly kill Ravana in the battle just as Indra killed the demon Anuhlada who carried away Pulomaja i.e., Saci Devi. 76
Then Sugriva sent Vinata to the East, Hanuman to the south, Sushena to the west and Satabali to the North to search Sita. 77
As days expired, the monkey armies sent to other directions returned fearing that surely, the haughtily punishing Sugriva would not excuse the delay of more than one month. But Hanuman, Jambavan, Angada, Nala, Nila and others who were sent to the south, unable to know Sita’s whereabouts, passed through a forest devoid of the movement of any creature as per the curse of the sage Kandu who was angered due to the death of his son. Then they saw a demon in a forest and got ready to fight with him thinking that he was Ravana. 78
Angada, taking him for Ravana, struck him angrily with a thunderbolt cuff. Thus he did an act, which was agreeable to the gods but not so because the demon was an ally of the demons and also Angada made him devoid of life i.e. killed. 79
They (the monkeys) searched for Sita here and there as per the directions of Angada became tired and lay down on the slopes of a nearby mountain. Then hoping for water they went into a cave guessing some water source inferring from the incoming and out-going water birds. There they entered a golden garden created by the magic power of Maya and presented by Brahma to the fairy Hema who caused hindrance to ( Maya’s) penance and which was presently occupied by Swayamprabha, the daughter of Meru Savarni. 80
There they were given hospitality by Swayamprabha and came out of that cave by her mystic power. Angada became worried and confounded that Sugriva’s punishment is sure to befall them for the expiry of the time limit, but was brought back to his own self by the confidence of Hanuman’s words. An eagle-king by name Sampati, hearing an account of the death of Jatayu in the wailings of the monkey-chiefs who undertook a fast unto death along with Angada, came out of a cave of Vindhya mountains and asked them: 81
Who are you scorching my ears by speaking ill of my brother Jatayu of unmitigated strength? You are making even the sun, who had long ago burnt my wings, cooler by your hotter words. 82
He, Sampati, on being told (by the monkeys) about the story (of Jatayu), performed the rites of libations to the deceased Jatayu. Then he remembered the wailing of Sita who was being carried away by Ravana emerging from the
opening of the Mahendra Mountain as related long ago by his son named Suparva who was sent in search of food. The sharp-eyed Sampati once again said: 83
You need not worry. Sita was carried away by Ravana and is in Lanka, the Capital City of the demon. You go there. 84
A sage named Nisakara, who relieved me of my affliction of burns from the sun, told me about your job. O, heroes of indefatigable courage, you can see Rama’s wife at once. 85
The immensely pleased chiefs of monkey-troops took leave from the friendly Sampati who knew the pros and cons, and set off. 86
The ocean became the guest to the path of their eyes (appeared before the eyes) of the greatly delighted monkey-chiefs whose viaticum (package of food for a journey), during their search for Ravana’s path, was the order of Sugriva, the monkey king. 87
The mob of the monkeys, now, remembered the arrows of the enemy of Indra’s i.e. Valin’s enemy i.e. Rama, and the vastness of the ocean and became down cast and speechless.88
Then Angada spoke to the highly dejected monkey army: 89
O shameless monkeys, why are you silent, losing hope of crossing over this channel dug by Sagara? (actually it as Sagara’s sons who dug the oceans.) How can you cross over the ocean of infamy which can neither be swallowed by Agastya nor can be quelled by the submarine fire etc., 90
Then as the chiefs of the monkey army spoke about their individual strength in crossing over the ocean, Jambavan pointed towards Hanuman, son of the wind god and said: 91
“O heroic monkey-chiefs, why this miserous endng dejection saying ‘Our strength in crossing the ocean is only this much?’ If only this Hanuman remembers the vow made by King Sugriva and gets ready to cross, can there be any difference between the ocean and a small puddle? (Of the size of a cow’s foot-mark) 92
This Hanuman, even during his childhood, jumped up to swallow the disk of the fiery sun taking it to be a ripe fruit. Then, Brahma gave him, whose cheek was wounded by the stroke of the adamant (Indra’s Vajrayudha), a great boon for the satisfaction of the wind-god.” 93
Then Hanuman, with vigour enhanced by (the words of) the wise Jambavan who knows the pros and cons enlarged his body to reach the proportions of Trivikrama (Vamana who occupied the three worlds), ascended to the hill-top, bid adieu to the monkey-chiefs nearby and got ready to cross the ocean. 94
Thus ends the book of Kishkindha in the Campu Ramayana written by the King of Vidarbha.


Then Hanuman, with great speed equal to that of Garuda, the king of the birds, started along the sky from the peak of the mount Mahendra in search of Sita, carried away by Ravana. 1
The mountain, unable to withstand the pressure of Hanuman’s feet steadily placed to cross the ocean, underwent such a miserable state that it appeared (1) as if shedding incessant showers of tears because of the floods of streams oozing out draining it completely; (2) as if having hair shaky and shattered because of the vast cluster of clouds spread on all sides; (3) as if struck with the disease of swelling because of the frightened herd of elephants; (4) as if bleeding because of the rough ridges crimsoned with the masses of the dust of the metallic ore raised by the crushing hard hoofs of the feet of the herds of the deer running with fear; (5) as if wailing because of the caves resounding with the roars of the lions just awoke; (6) as if having the entrails coming out because of the lots of serpents crawling from the near by caves; (7) as if sweating because of the blossomed-like appearance of tops of the trees with the dew drops shed from the masses of clouds broken by he shaking branches; (8) as if gasping for breath greatly because of the sky filled with hissings of the wind blowing through the holes of the bamboos broken by the falling down upon the asphalt regions. In this way the mountain underwent a miserable state beyond words. 2
The clusters of trees of the forests on the Mahendra Mountain first followed Hanuman (up to some distance) swept by the force of his uprising and then fell down in the midst of the sea. Their tops created an illusion of the numerous peg-poles (driven in the ocean) for tying the lines of threads for the future bridge to be built.3
The Mainaka Mountain, with high peaks piercing the heaven, arose for Hanuman’s rest with reverence from the ocean with series of tides blown up by the rupture of Hanuman’s sides (with the wind that arose). 4
Then Hiranyanabha (Mainaka) spoke with soothing words to Hanuman who, thinking that a hindrance for his journey had arisen, felled him down by striking with his (Hanuman’s) chest and was going forward. 5
“ O son of the wind-god, I am prompted by the grateful ocean for your rest from the weariness of journey; so, gentle sir, take rest and go. 6
Long ago, I was protected by your father from Indra who was cutting off (the wings of) the mountains. So I am now not wingless. I have wings. Therefore you treat me not as an enemy but as a friend.” 7
Then Hanuman politely treated Mainaka who was entreating thus, and, duty-bound, proceeded forward. 8
Indra, who wields the Vajra which destroyed the moving mountains, even after noticing Mainaka moving about in the ocean, did not get enraged because he (Mainaka) served Hanuman. 9
Then Surasa, the mother of the (two tongued) serpents, with wide-opened mouth obstructed quickly the path of Hanuman who was speeding towards the city of Lanka as before, like the Vindhya Mountain which obstructed the path of the sun. 10
As Hanuman enlarged his body in order to conquer Surasa, his feet touched the ocean and his head bore the strings of bubble-drops rising from the waves of the celestial river. 11
Next Hanuman made his body small, entered her (Surasa’s) belly, and immediately came out again and once again expanded his body like Trivikrama. 12
Then, Hanuman as mighty as Nrisimha, the man-lion god, got enraged with Simhika for her dragging him with his shadow and even while going along, tore her with his sharp-tipped finger nails. 13
Then he descended on the peak of a tall mountain on the other side of the ocean, and with a greatly diminished body, approached the north tower gate. Now his mind became caught up in the web of constant worry-strings. (He became worried.) 14
“How can the monkey army cross this ocean causing great hindrance? Even after crossing, how can it reach this capital of the demons? By all accounts, Rama cannot fulfill his desire. My crossing over the ocean has become only useless. I do not know whether Sita is alive or not? ”. Contemplating thus, Hanuman wanted to search for Sita here and there and, in order to go about unnoticed he just wished for the setting of the sun. 15
Then the sun god reached the western direction as if to remind Varuna that the time for using the bow of Indra kept with Agastya has arrived. 16
Then the evening crimson glow spread creating a series of doubts in the minds of all men: “ Is the sky reddened by the lots of flames of the forest-fire emanating from the forests on the tops of western mountain? Or, is it crimsoned by the multitude of flames rising from the sunstones on the slopes of the mountains-- flames caused by the sparks leaking from the tight turban of the approaching sun? Or, is it purpled by the gladdened Varuna who is giving a costly offering to the guest, the sun? Or, Is it blooded by the flames of submarine fire of the western ocean surging up to devour the waters of the celestial river also? ”. The rows of the lotuses closed their doors i.e. the petals. The ‘Brahmin’ mendicants in the form of bees went on begging nectar from house to house in the form of the white water lilies. The evening breezes became fragrant by the rupture with the blossomed lily buds. Darkness roamed about here and there. The rows of towers in the cities of the rulers of the quarters became dark as if with the black smoke of the incense. Sad ringing coos of the ruddy geese began as the prologue for their misery of separation. The ichored elephant, i.e. the sky, became decorated by the garlands, i.e. the stars. 17
The moon, the life of eroticism, the axe for the ‘tamala’ forests in the form of darkness, arose on the peak of the eastern mountain. 18
The moon’s rays shone in the expansive sky though surrounded by darkness like sprouts of lotuses in a lake surrounded by moss. 19
At that dusk-time, Hanuman, the stage-director of the new drama, namely, ‘ Entry into Lanka’, casting aside the curtain in the form of the enemy’s flame,
entered (on the stage) for the pleasure of the connoisseurs in the form of the deities. 20
He then conquered the presiding deity of Lanka who took upon the form of a woman to fight with him and, standing as a bolt obstructing the path, threatened him greatly. Then, he was told by her about Lord Brahma’s edict about her own discomfiture and the destruction of her abode i.e. Lanka at the hands of a monkey. Then permitted by her, he reached the palace of the demon-king unhindered, searching for Sita. 21
The night, with the directions brightened by rays of the lamp, i.e., the moon, showed him with reverence, “This is the demon-emperor’s capital, guarded by demon-armies. This is his palace with golden towers touching the range of clouds. This is the Pushpaka robbed from Kubera”. 22
The moon, as if contemplating “ The sun is fortunate in having a son (Sugriva) who is bent upon to earn fame by doing this kind of help to (the husband of Sita) Rama.” acted like a lamp in the path of Rama’s spy in Lanka, to earn such fame for himself also. 23.
Hanuman, roaming thus, observed unhindered the women-folk of the harem sleeping in the bedroom-- women who exceed, even while sleeping, the topmost beauties of the females of the deities. Unsuccessful in his aim (of finding out Sita), he pondered over in so many ways, and jumping over the compound, he made obeisance to his favourite deity, to help him in the search for Sita in the Ashoka garden. 24
Searching for Sita here and there, he straightway went to the Ashoka garden, unconfused about other paths, just like a self-less man, desirous of the supreme state resorts to the triad, the Vedas, the divine medicine herb which allays all diseases (sins). 25.
Roaming about the Ashoka garden, which was of a variety of trees like Naga, Punnaga…And others, he climbed a golden Simshupa tree with branches touching the sky and expanding through entire space. 26
There, Hanuman, with his body concealed among the leaves of the tree, underwent the state of Lord Vishnu contained to a Banyan leaf. 27
There, Hanuman saw Sita, Sita who was without any beautification, Sita who was carried away through mischief from her hermitage by the demon and kept in his house, Sita who was like a jasmine-creeper uprooted from the mango grove and planted in a area of thorny bushes by a barbarian, Sita who was like a garland (stolen) from a temple by a dog mistaking it to be meat and left in a burial ground. 28
After looking at her, he pondered: 29
“Perhaps, even the moon may exist without the moonlight. Even the sun may exist without a shadow (Chaya, the Sun god’s wife). But it is surprising how Rama could survive without this lady.” 30.
Even as Hanuman was pondering like this, the night came to an end and the moon was bent upon reaching the proximity of the peak of the western mountain. Then Ravana, revealing his passion with his sore eyes due to incomplete sleep and strokes of Cupid’s arrows, slowly entered the Asoka garden, desirous of seeing Sita. He was besmeared with sandal paste and was wearing a garland across his chest. He was, as though, mocking at the starry firmament with the brilliance of the jewels decked in his crown. 31.
All the darkness of the final part of the night entered Ravana’s heart-darkness, which was swept from all the direction by the brooms in the form of lamps adorning the hands of the dancing girls attending upon him. 32.
The sinful and immoral Ravana, blind with passion, approached Sita taking her to be an ordinary woman just as an elephant (tries to catch) the flame of the sacrificial fire mistaking it to be a ‘sallaki’ creeper with sprouts through out. 33
Sita, with her tender body shaking by seeing him, and with her heart cracked by the tirade of that wretch, but confidant about her beloved, spoke to him (Ravana), keeping a straw (of grass) between (her and him). 34
“Wretched fellow, Lord Brahma, the codifier of all the morality is your ancestor. But you are causing shame to all of his descendants with your passion for others’ wives. 35
“My husband will certainly take pity upon you, if you again take me back to Pancavati, like a favourable wind blowing towards the shore carries a ship which was torn away from the shore. Yama, the death-god, also will pity you. 36
“You will also become worthy of Rama’s unconquerable friendship. But, except you, who wants to waste with the current of blood flowing from his own heart, Rama’s arrow the tip of which has become muddy with the thick marrow stuck to it at the time of destroying the armies of the demons like Khara etc., 37
“Or, if you remain imprudent, who is capable enough to thwart the chataka bird in the form of Lakshmana’s arrows from feasting upon your blood- Lakshmana’s arrows which are thirsty due to the draught of lack of war after the battle of the Janasthana.” 38
But not even one of Sita’s words touched the demon-king who was torn asunder by the five arrows (of the cupid). Can the power of the medicinal herb, which can allay poison etc., work upon one who was bitten by a five-faced serpent and who is on the verge of death? 39
Ravana, upon hearing Sita’s mode of contemptuous words, turned away from her with anger and ordered the demoness guards surrounding her “Make her submissive by your four-fold strategy. If she remains adamant, send the accursed woman to the kitchen for (my) break-fast.” Having thus ordered, he went to his house, at dawn. 40
Then Sita whose lotus-heart became withered due to the bad climate of the terrible looks and uncouth words of the demonesses, pondered like a doe surrounded by a crowd of tigers and like an angel (fallen upon the earth) by the power of a curse. 41
Perhaps my Lord could not know that I am here because the only person who knows (about my fate) Jatayu has died. 42
Or, due to the magic powers of the demons, Rama, with temperament changed, has become disinterested in me? 43
Certainly, this wicked Ravana has not only stolen me, but Rama’s natural kindness also. If not so, will he who is compassionate towards the dependants, he who is the matchless hero in the world, remain quite? 44
Bewailing thus, contemplating always upon Rama alone, she swooned in distress.45
Then, Trijata admonished the demonesses who were threatening Sita of impeccable character and told them about a bad dream she had seen-a dream which as a festivity to the deities. 46.
Moreover, Trijata became a supporting branch to Sita the creeper, which was rolling on the ground for long because of the distance of the supporting tree which has become thin due to the mouths of the (devouring) demonesses. 47.
Then, as Sita was contemplating suicide, Hanuman thought, “The poor lady cannot be overlooked now.” So, following a prudent course, he moved near to her. 48
He slowly showered nectar in the form of praises of Rama together with that of his race, for her confidence (in him)--nectar which was a medicine capable of healing the wound made in the ears by the sharp spear-like words of Ravana. 49
Then, Sita extending her looks at all sides, saw the monkey on the branch and, believing it to be a dream, got confused and prayed for the welfare of her husband, Rama along with Lakshmana. Then she reflected “ How can I, who cannot sleep, get a dream?” She became afraid of Hanuman mistaking him to be the demon, Ravana, come in disguise? 50
Then Ajaneya descended from the tree and, creating confidence in her by his power of speech submitted to her, with folded hands. 51
“Noble lady, I am the messenger from Rama who is pining greatly because of the separation from you. Please do not think otherwise about me. 52
“O princess of Mithila, Rama tells you, through me, his welfare, Rama whose mental stability has left him along with you and who is in a state equal to that of the koka bird (ruddy goose) during the nights. 53
“Also, Lakshmana made his obeisance to you by his head. The monkey king, Sugriva, also asks about you welfare. 54
Hanuman, asked by her, who got belief in him and lost fear with these words of his, told her about (Rama’s) friendship with Sugriva which resulted in
the death of Vali. He then gave her the signet ring, which was embossed with the auspicious name of Rama like the mind of Valmiki. 55
Indeed, the day of her marriage did not give her even a hundredth part of happiness of that of the day on which Sita saw the ring brought by Hanuman. 56
Then she spoke to him with boundless joy. 57
“Worthy person, by all means, the death of that wicked fellow is fast approaching. I was told like that by the daughter of Vibhishana, named Anala, who was sent by her mother. Neither that wretched is going to restore me to my lord without using the fourth expedient (danda-punishment). Nor am I able to maintain this miserable life for more than one month.” 58
Hearing this, Hanuman said, “Noble lady, do not be afraid. I can immediately carry you and, crossing over the sea, take you near the feet of Rama. Do not think that I am not capable of doing so.” 59
More over, he attained the growth equal to a great mountain. Thereby the ocean indeed attained the state equal to that of a canal.60
Then the pleased Sita said, “What is impossible for you who had jumped over the ocean just with your legs. But, O great monkey, your path will certainly become dangerous if you go along with me. 61
One thing more. If I turn him into ashes with the fire of my chastity, really the arrow of Rama cannot have its fitting feast. Also, the brilliance of his (Rama’s) moon-like fame will become faded. So, brother, my departure from here along with Rama after his punishing Ravana, alone is the best.”62
Told thus, Hanuman again spoke to the noble Sita. 63
“ For you, who was deceived by an unreal animal, to return (to Rama) along with a monkey is not at all proper. If this story spreads in the world, what will be the renowned of fame of Rama’s bow? 64
Why so many words? That alone is thought of which is fit for Rama’s wife; that alone is decided which is equal to this kind of happening; that alone is expressed which is proper to the act of crime of Ravana; that alone agreed to which is compatible to the morality of a lady of noble family; that alone is said which is suitable to the style of the speech of a royal lady.” Thus praising her
greatly, he again said, “O Sita, believe me that Rama and Lakshmana, by all means, have reached Lanka. Permit me to go. However, please give me some token of recognition known before to Rama. 65.
She sighed for long and said after contemplation. “ Long ago, in the forest Citrakuta which diminished the splendour of the Nandana garden with its (Citrakuta’s) beauty of the tender trees, a crow, by name Dharadhara, caused a wound with the tip of his sharp nails, near my breast when Rama was (lying down) having my thigh as a pillow. Rama saw the crow. 66
The hero, Rama, cast the missile of Brahma in the form of a Kusa grass upon that crow who was the son of Indra. Later, he (was saved) but lost one eye only due to Rama’s compassion and got the name of ‘Chirajeevi’ true to the meaning. (Long-lived and one-eyed). 67
She, doubly miserable with the remembrance of an old story, unfolded another object, which was covered by hair. 68
The famished-bodied Sita gave to Hanuman a crest jewel, which was like the anger solidified by the fear of Ravana. He, (Hanuman) bowed, received it and set off with his arm resembling a serpent having a jewel in its mouth. 69.
Then Hanuman, who was successful in his mission, destroyed the Ashoka garden to intimate the demon king about his arrival. 70
Hanuman, roaming about in the garden of Lanka, imitated by his actions-making the branches (of the trees) bend extremely (denigrating the branches of the Vedas extremely), roaming about in crooked paths (behaving n an unworthy manner), shedding down the flowers (defeating the deities) and causing fear to the birds whose chirpings were sweet to hear (causing fear to the Brahmins who recite the Vedas sweetly) 71
Ravana, upon getting the violent report of the destruction of the garden from the demons guarding it, got angry and sent his servants, terrible like the servants of the Death-god, along with Jambumali, son of Prahasta. Hanuman killed them all and stationed himself on the archway of a monument. 72
Ravana, upon hearing about the killing of the demons, sent five ministers Prahasana etc., of lion-like valour for capturing the monkey alive. 73
Later, Ravana sent his own son Aksha, who was present, to contain Hanuman who had killed the ministers with an iron rod (broken from) of the gateway and was repeatedly proclaiming himself as “I am the messenger of Rama” 74
The victorious Hanuman, making the starry path i.e., the sky red untimely with the dust rising from the huge golden walls of the monument powdered by the striking of the demons against them, hurried to play sport of dice (killing Aksha kumara) by casting down on the plank, namely the earth (expanse of earth) in the courtyard of Lanka. 75
Having performed the slaughter of Aksha in the battlefield even as the other demons stood staring at, Hanuman burnt down the monumental palace with the fire that arose by breaking the pillars and sat again on the archway. The twenty eyes of the demon king, who got enraged upon hearing this incident also, simultaneously fell upon his son Indrajit (intending him) for the battle. 76
“Who is able enough to look up at you either in heaven, or the sky or on the earth, when you stand for a battle?” Praising Indrajit with these words, Ravana sent him saying, “Bring the monkey here.”77
Battle ensured between Hanuman and Indrajit near the archway to bring out the sentiment of sorrow of Ravana, to destroy the demon-army, to make the demonesses wail with out any feeling of shame and to purify Lanka with fire-Lanka which was impregnable to the sun and the moon. 78
Hanuman felt happy with Meghanada i.e., Indrajit like a peacock on that battle cloudy day (sangrama dhurdina), raining waters of arrows (saravarshini). 79
Then Indrajit, enraged with the death of the chiefs of the demon army, and finding useless of various other missiles, caught Hanuman (proud of victory) with the mystic missile of Brahma. 80
Then the demons tied him, paralysed by he divine missile, with ropes made of hemp. 81
The fetters with which the demon, Indrajit, bound Hanuman, became the cause for the release of the divine females who were imprisoned long ago.82
Indrajit, aware that the divine missile does not endure other fetters, presented Hanuman before Ravana. 83
Hanuman saw Ravana whose strength of arms was put so test at the time of raising Kailasa, the mountain abode of Lord Shiva, and the fringes of whose upper garment were fluttering with winds from the chowries waved by the hands of the imprisoned dancing girls of the world of the lord of the deities. 84
Hanuman saw Ravana, whose body became multi-coloured with the radiance of the right rays of his large teeth (tusks) shining within the cup of deep red lips. He was like a mountain of dark sapphires, which was beautified with the crescent moon covered by the evening reddish clouds. 85
Hanuman saw Ravana whose chest bore the marks of the rupture with the tusks of the quarter-elephants in his sports in the form of battles-the tusks broken and the elephants receded. He was like the ocean with tides in each of which the moon with its dark mark reflected. 86
Hanuman saw Ravana who was like the matured sins of the three worlds personified obstructing the path of amorous salvation-lady. He was like the darkness coronated at will having defeated the effulgence of the sun, the moon and the fire with his power of penance. 87
Ravana saw Hanuman and was surprised. He thought that Hanuman was Nandisvara himself who came- Nandi who had given him a curse for the offence of shaking the Kailasa Mountain. 88
Then Hanuman, charged of so many offences by Prahasta, said to Ravana. 89
“ I am one of the messengers of Rama, the jewel of the solar race; Rama, the truthful performer of his vows; Rama who has voluntarily come to live in the forest according to the decree of his father; Rama whose arrows were dooms-day fires for the heaps of husk in the form of the armies of demons Khara and others who were angry for the disfiguring of Surpanakha who was tormented by cupid; Rama who made friendship with Sugriva during his search of his wife who was stolen (by you) when he was engaged in killing the false deer; Rama who has removed the thorn in the form of Vali; Rama who was the cause for the
destruction of the pride of the strength of arms of Parashurama, the embodiment of penance, who was the fire for the bamboo forests of the wicked kingly races. I am one of the messengers that were sent to all directions by Sugriva for searching Sita; a messenger who was capable of crossing the ocean; as messenger who has uprooted the multitude of trees in the Ashokavana to notify his arrival to you before leaving after bowing to the wedded wife of Rama in the city garden attached to your harem; a messenger who has come before you undergoing the bondage of spider-yarn like fetters of the demons just with a curiosity to have a look at you. 90
O immoral fellow, how are you trying to contain in a cloth a sacrificial alter-born fire by detaining the Rama’s wife whose noble character is praised in all worlds up to the heaven. 91
O Ravana, may not the flocks of birds, avaricious of flesh, gather forming an umbrella around your body wounded by Lakshmana’s arrows. May not the tears of womenfolk become the libations to the race of Pulastya destroyed completely (leaving no male member to give libations) on account of you. 92
O ignoble fellow, you may be a covetor of other men’s wives. Even then, do not aspire for Rama’s wife. Can a serpent aspire with watering mouth, for the breath of Garuda, thinking, “I am a wind-devourer?” 93
O immoral fellow, Rama’s serpent-like arrow taken out from the hollow-like quiver of his sandalwood tree branch-like arm is going to devour your life-gases without any delay. 94
Enough of words. Except a salutation, what else can be an armour before the power of which was already exhibited with the deer, the stage-director of the drama of battle and with the monkey (Vali) whose tail was your antagonist?” 95
Hearing this, the demon king became enraged and ordered his soldiers to kill Hanuman. But the naturally pure-minded Vibhishana objected (to the order) with the endorsement of law that a messenger should not be killed. 96.
Ravana agreed to Vibhishana’s words and ordered the demons, “ Of all the limbs, the tail is the most important for a monkey. So, set fire to this
monkey’s tail enwrapped with cotton cloth and lead him through all the streets of the city beating him and announcing his crimes. 97
The fire-god, golden coloured like the ‘karnikara flowers’, shone from his (Hanuman’s) tail beyond description as a result of the accrued fortunes of the deities. 98
Sita, upon hearing this happening, being described with pride by the watch-guard demonesses, became worried in mind, worshipped the fire-god and prayed “ Please become cool to Hanuman.” 99
The fire-god immediately became cool at the tip of Hanuman’s tail and stayed like a diamond lamp so as not to become a fuel to the fierce fire of Sita’s penance. 100
Hanuman also thought, “ I shall see the city in detail with the help of this fire, the city which I could not see properly during the night.” So, he killed the demon-forces with the same iron bar used previously. 101
Brahma churned Lanka, the ocean, terrible with the distressed armies, the agitated waves, with Hanuman, the Manthara mountain who was wounded up with the ropes, the body of the serpent-king, in order to present Sita, Goddess Lakshmi to Rama, the Lord Vishnu. 102
Then, while Lanka was burnt.103
Hanuman spread the smoke through out the sky- the smoke which was the night for the lustres in the form of faces of the demonesses; the smoke which was the beginning of the rainy season for the pea-hen in the form of the earth the smoke which was the cloud to the swan in the form of the fame of Ravana; the smoke which was the (loose) hair denoting the widowhood of the lady in the form of the city of Lanka; smoke which was like Trijata (who consoled Sita) to Sita. 104
The smoke spread making the celestial river being mistaken as the river Yamuna. It spread giving a happy pretext to the Vidyadharas who, due to the fear of Ravana, wanted to conceal the tears of joy rising from the sight of Hanuman’s valour. 105
The smoke which arose from the burning of Ravana’s city first took the splendour of a black cloth, then, that of the sari-knot tightened by a sapphire belt, that of the muddy musk, that of a garland of black water-lilies and that of thick collyrium in the regions of the hip, the waist, the breast, the neck and the eyes (respectively). 106
Ravana’s city which was engulfed in the fire was filled up with the heavy wailings of the citizens like, “O father, mother, O son, O comrade, O grand-son, O beloved, O friend, where are you? O, I am perished.” 107
The sparks emanating from the fire of Hanuman’s tail created fumigation (waving of camphor-flame) before the faces of the ladies of heaven; they created series of lightning even in the cloudless sky. They did not extinguish even after two or three days and blazed like the sub-marine fire. 108
Lanka appeared like the live coals to the demons who stood in the sky. They appeared to be quenching their houses with their tears. 109
The demon forces could not have performed such grief an action even under the leadership of Ravana himself, what it could do under the command of his son, Indrajit. The fire god could not have burnt Lanka to that extent even if the wind god supported him as he could do with the acquaintance of his son, Hanuman. 110
The goddess of Indra’s empire who was kidnapped by the arm-force of Ravana who was eager to have a battle-lay wanted to join her husband (Indra) only after getting herself purified in the fire born in the ‘Arani’ (the fire-producing wooden equipment) in the form of Hanuman. 111
Why so many words? The messenger of Rama had, upon entering Lanka which was protected by Ravana’s arms, made it easier for the messenger of death-god to enter it (later). 112
Hanuman, who was tainted with sin because of the association with the sinful Ravana (by entering Lanka), and who was a sacrificer, having controlled his senses (having conquered Akshakumara) and purified himself by offering the flesh of the demons in the fire of his own tail, regained his original gait (lustre). 113
Having learnt from the words of ‘Charanas' that Sita was unharmed in the fire of Lanka, Hanuman bowed to her and, obtaining her approval, ascended Arishta Mountain, crossed the ocean quickly, and descended upon Mahendra Mountain. He thus made the monkey chiefs successful in their desire (of finding out Sita). 114
Then, Hanuman, having paid his respects to the monkey chiefs as their due, and asked by them, related to them all of his story. 115
Then the monkey army, made joyful by Hanuman, in order to share their ocean of joy with Rama and Sugriva raced forward competing with each other, followed by the army chiefs. On the way, they plundered the Madhuvana, honey-garden, protected by Dadhimukha and, with the approval of Hanuman enjoyed draughts of honey. 116
The enraged Dadhimukha, with folded hands, said to Angada, lofty like a hug mountain, “Please stop at once this monkeys from devouring the honey.”117
However, Angada replied to him 118
“O Dadhimukha, who can stop when Hanuman, who has given me the honey-like news, has spoken (given his assent). Let the army of the monkeys drink at their will.” 119
Later, Sugriva was filled with joy, guessing by the fight in Madhuvana as related by Dadhimukha, who approached him with fear, that Sita was found and underwent a change in the body caused by the arrival of Dadhimukha. 120
The mighty monkey army competing with each other in climbing up and getting down the mountains, roaming about the forests, jumping, tasting a variety of fruits, making the sounds of various musical instruments orally, embracing the trees and hitting with the tails with arrogance, appeared before Sugriva. 121
Hanuman, keeping the (Sita’s) crest-jewel in his palm, saluted to Rama’s feet, as Lakshmana drank him with his eyes reddened due to lack of sleep. 122
Hanuman, though he had crossed the vast ocean to and fro easily, now became drowned completely in the ocean of joy in front of the army. 123
Asked by Rama, who was overjoyed with the presentation of the crest-jewel, Hanuman bowed to him and submitted: 124
“I have seen the princess who is tormented by crowed of demonesses in a garden of Lanka. She was like a serpentine princess imprisoned in Garuda’s realm, due to some sin. 125
I cleared her of grief by praising your ancestry and presenting your signet ring. Then, completing my errand, I, intending to return, requested her for a token of message. 126
This crest jewel is sent by the daughter of Janaka who wept for long and related the story, which happened in the forest, connected with the doings of Jayanta who was terrified by the Brahma-missile.127
O lord, why so many words? I have returned, after strengthening with your signet ring, the noble lady’s life, which was about to depart but was somehow withheld with hope. 128
Thus ends the Book of Beauty (Sundarakanda) in the glorious Champu Ramayana written by the king of Vidarbha.


My heart is enthralled by the teacher’s lotus feet as well as by king Bhoja, by having even a casual glance at (either of) which the goddess of words i.e., Saraswati appears in front of any person; great sapid arises; profundity in seminars develops; all arts flourish and fresh fame spreads. 1
I am not ashamed to attempt completion of the grand poetic work written by that great Bhoja with my meagre scholarship. Even a thread is worn on the heart when it comes into contact with a garland of precious gems. 2
Contemplating about Sita whose life got fixed by the signet ring and observing Rama, who was infatuated by seeing the crest jewel, the heroic Lakshmana wanted to complete the destruction of Ravana by a single shaft; So also, the poet Lakshmana began to complete the holy story of the demolition of Ravana in one canto. 3
After hearing from Hanuman, the meritorious story of Sita, which caused profound joy, Rama’s glance, hardened with his rage against Ravana, fell upon his bow. 4
Sugriva also, with enthusiasm doubled by seeing Rama who was angry with Ravana, honouring his pledge to help, considered the sea as a puddle, and, brave and deep minded, readied the whole army consisting of Angada, Kumuda, Nala, Neela etc., to invade Lanka based on the peaks of the Trikuta Mountain. 5
The whole river, the complete army, filled by the shower of rains, the glances, of the clouds, of the corners of Rama’s eyes, immediately moved towards the south sea. 6
At once, the ocean in form of army of monkeys swelled with excitement- army which filled the gaps between the quarters with the resounding tumult of the monkeys, and which had filled the entire surrounding forests with out any gaps; as Ramachandra (the moon in the form of Rama) got upon Hanuman just as the moon gets upon the eastern mountain; Rama, (the moon) along with whom the crowed of bears moved (the moon along with whom the clusters of stars moved); Rama who gave pleasure to Kumuda (moon who gave pleasure to the water-lilies) ; Rama who was very kind with Prasada (the moon who was brighter than the ‘Sara’ reed); Rama who was the joy of Neela (the moon who was the joy of the blue water lilies Rama whose valour was eager to invade upon Ravana’s realm ( the moon whose light was intent upon occupying the ten faces of the space); Rama who was followed by Lakshmana who got upon Angada, son of Tara (the moon who was endowed with the black mark which causes delight to the stars). 7
The boundless forest became perturbed with the frightened bisons, stupefied lions, and terrified cruel chamari herds and young deer with tremulous eyes-all due to the roars of the monkeys. 8
Rama, making the forest thin and the seashore almost dry with the armies, climbed the Sahya Mountains and reached the unbearable Malaya Mountain, the exclusive abode of the slow and cool breeze. 9
Having reached the mountain, Rama said to Lakshmana: 10
These breezes are numbing my mind-the breezes which reside in the cottages (cavities) of sandalwood trees cooled by the splutter of the surging waves of the near by streams, the breezes which are impregnably thick blowing on the Malaya slopes; the breezes which carry the sweet notes of the beloveds of the cuckoos. 11
So saying woefully, Rama climbed upon the Mahendra Mountain, which blocked the seashore and saw the sea, which with the seal-marks in the form of the whirlpools, was like the everlasting fame of his ancestral kings. 12
With his mind struck with wonder upon seeing it, he said: 13
“ I salute to the everlasting fame of our ancestral kings by whose nails was this ocean dug and also by whom it is filled- this ocean of which the serpent king cannot find the depth, the ocean of which the quarters are the boundary lines, the ocean of which the islands are the dunes, the ocean which is beyond words.” 14
Then Sugriva, the monkey-king, camped all his army, with Rama’s directions, on the sea-shore which was beautiful with the forest near the Mahendra mountain, and enticing (alluring) with the breeze emanating from the Malaya mountain. 15
The gluttonous and arrogant monkeys roamed about the regions of the seashore filling their stomachs with the heaps of Panasa (Jack), Tala (palm) and Rasala (mango) fruits, the seashore which was comfortable with musk-scented breeze blowing from the grooves of the dense sandalwood trees. 16
Then, Ravana learnt from his spies about Rama’s battle craving army which moved like another ocean on the shore and was all set up to cross it. He convened a meeting of the ministers-with-holding his heart-felt fear, like the Airavata, the divine elephant, plunged in mud, not knowing what else to do and, unwilling to release Sita, lust-ridden as he was. 17
“The demon-king spoke to Prahasta etc., in secret. “ You know what I want. Tell me what can be done with the enemy.” 18
They, realising his intent, submitted: 19
“O lord, why this slander when we, your servants ready to carry out your orders. Sita, who has been captured in the impregnable cage of your mighty arms, should never be released.” 20
As Ravana told them that the curse of Nalakubara (in connection with Rambha) and that of Brahma (in connection with Punjikasthala) stood as obstacles in his achieving his desire (of enjoying Sita even by force) Vibhishana, embellished with unequal morality and knowledge said to his elder brother, angrily. 21
Alas, O king of the demons! You are, by Fate’s decree beyond words enamoured of another person’s wife like a fickle tongued lion who, mistaking the flame of a forest-fire for meat wants to devour it.22
Lord Brahma, having heard from the Kinnaras about the blemish of kidnapping Rama’s wife now staining his (Brahma’s) sinless race, raises a cry of grief and closes his eyes. But how can his pair of hands shut his eight ears? 23
Just ponder! How impregnable Lanka is, protected as it is by the sea as its moat! And what a great calamity beyond words has befallen to it by a mere monkey! I doubt that some mischievous super-human power of Illusion was born in the name of Sita, daughter of the earth, the child of Janaka, the princess of Mithila, only to cause humiliation to Lanka.24
Why so many words! If you do not consider a monkey or a man (as a source of threat to you), (I remind you about) Vali and Kartavirya whose valour is known to you. If you do not even consider the curse of Nandi or even the boon of Brahma (given to you) excepting the man. “25
The wicked Ravana despised Vibhishana, his younger brother who thus told him the salutary course mixed with prudence, and Ravana said “ This co-heir of mine is a supporter of the enemy and deserves punishment.” Then Vibhishana terrific with rage, deserted the vitally injurious Ravana, jumped to the sky, along with his four ministers who also jumped up, crossed the sea, and, from a distance and staying in the sky, said to Sugriva and others who raised their heads with suspicion. 26
“I am Vibhishana who has deserted Ravana, the elder brother who spoke harshly and other kinsmen. I take refuse in Rama, the destroyer of enemies and the remover of the misery of the distressed. I think He is alone is my refuse.” 27
Rama saw Vibhishana who was thus speaking very pathetically. Hanuman also recommended for him remembering (his acquaintance in Lanka). But Sugriva was doubtful about the intent of his arrival and expressed it. Rama then compassionately said to him smiling. 28
“Friend, does not the progeny of Raghu become light if anybody seeking refuge from me goes away in vain? May be the brother or son of the enemy, any body who seeks refuge deserves my compassion. 29
Then Vibhishana, brought immediately near Rama by Hanuman who knew his (Rama’s) heart, saluted Rama politely. 30
Rama said to the humble Vibhishana, “I am now bestowing upon you the kingdom of Ravana. Sugriva who is enjoying his elder brother’s kingdom along with his courtiers is an example in this. (to the veracity of my promise). 31
By god’s grace, one gets a worthy status by taking a wise step. (by taking refuge in the divine foot). Vibhishana caught Rama’s foot embellished with the linear parasol and obtained a position with a parasol. 32
He (Vibhishana), though already anointed by tides of nectar in the form of Rama’s glances, was anointed again (coronated) for the confidence of all the people, like another Sugriva. Then he related to Rama all the strength of Ravana and requested him humbly to worship the Sea-god to build a bridge by which the armies could cross the sea to lay siege to Lanka immediately. 33
Then Rama lied down on the bed of kusa-grass prepared on the sea shore meditating upon the sea-god, like the fire on sacrificial pail. 34
But the sea-god did not condescend though Rama lied down on the bed of Kusa-grass for three nights as if bound by a vow, controlling his senses, and contemplating upon him (the sea-god). 35
Then Rama, the foremost of the Raghus, casting his glance, red with rage, with the eye-brow-knot curved like an aviary, thought of taking the bow to end the first creation of Brahma i.e., the water (of the sea). 36
Taking the formidable bow, he loaded it with the fire missile (arrow tipped with fire). 37
Even before Rama discharged the fire-missile upon the sea, Ganga, the river-goddess, became worried and made use of the water-missile (to counter-attack the fire-missile) in the form of tears. (Wept for her husband’s distress) 38
As Rama discharged the fire-missile easily, the sea became agitated to the depth. The crocodiles sighed long with pain. The demonic fish got whirled in the netherworld. The water-elephants and the water-pythons took refuge in the caves of the submarine hills. 39
The sea, though could withstand the dooms-day-fire, though could undergo the heat of the fire of the poison; though could bear being constantly devoured by the submarine fire; could put up with the fiery axe of Parashurama; could not endure even for a moment Rama’s inexhaustible fire-missile which was burning the inner parts.40
The sea-god approached Rama himself for asylum who alone could save him from the torture of the arrow. Do not people pray for water, Indra who strikes with a thunderbolt? 41
Then the ocean god presented to Rama heaps of jewels of different hues, and pleased Rama with lofty praises and prostrations. 42
He said, “Please dispatch this missile of Brahma that has been aimed (at me) to some desert inhabited by demons. I shall bear up with the bridging of water. Let Nala build the bridge at once.” So saying, he gently disappeared. 43
The monkeys ordered by Rama, brought mountains from the eight directions in no time-the mountains the foot, middle-part and he peaks of which touched the three worlds. The sea, though became muddy when the mountains were thrown in the waters by Nala, were again filled up soon with the streams flowing down from the mountains. 44
The mountains fell in the sea--the mountains which were rich with powerful herbs the scent of which brought back to life the water-creatures crushed by the mountains thrown from a long distance; the mountains from the
caves of which came out huge lions perturbed by the hissings of the serpent-kings visible from the fissures of the earth. 46
The construction of the bridge by Nala was miraculous with the unnoticeable raising and throwing of the mountains (by the monkeys). The monkey thought that the bridge across the sea was the stretched arm of the Earth Goddess assuring impunity to her daughter (Sita). 46
Then the monkeys crossed the formidable sea by the bridge like introvert sages who cross the illusion of the world by the initiation (by a teacher). Then they saw the Suvela Mountain and were delighted. 47
Rama occupied the Suvela mountain, the areas of forests of which became unnoticeably dense with the camps of the monkeys along the sea shore. The mountain frightened the sea shore (i.e. sea creatures) with the enraged lions brought out of their caves cracking with the tumult of the monkeys. 48
Ravana heard from Suka that Rama had crossed the sea and camped on the sea shore and sent Suka and Sarana to ascertain correctly Rama’s strength. They were revealed by Vibhishana and became distressed, tormented by the incited monkeys, but were released with life by Rama, the refuge of the hapless. Then Ravana ascended the lofty palace and learnt from them about the up-surging monkey-chiefs individually who were busily occupied in the preparation for the battle. He bravely looked down upon them contemptuously and disregarded them who were praising the might of the enemy. But later, he also got a detailed report from spies like Sardula and became worried. He pondered long and told in secret something to the most obedient Vidyut-jihwa who was seated near by and got down (from the terrace). 49
The demon Vidyut-jihwa made Rama’s counterfeit head along with the bow and arrow with his power of magic according to the order of the demon-king and placed it before Sita saying that it was brought from the battlefield. He thus confounded her who was pinning with separation for long just as fire of lightening scorches the wild jasmine creeper, which is already withering with the severe summer heat. (She swooned) 50
Then becoming conscious, the gullible and chaste woman Sita, believing the mischief to be true wept. 51
“ O, mother Earth, alas, Sita is still alive even when he has become like this. With confidence of joining whom I am putting up with the stay in the demon’s harem, the impediment to safety because of the she-demons and the threatening of Ravana.” 52
Sarama, at once, approached Sita who was deluded in very dangerous thoughts and consoled her for long like a cloud raining a shower refreshing a pea-hen agitated by summer heat, saying, “Friend, Sita, speak to me; Believe my word. Why this despondency? This is all the illusion created by Ravana. Don’t get perturbed in your mind. Why do you entertain this ignoble thought about Rama whose arm is strong enough to protect the whole world.” 53
Ravana, who was ever ferocious with his itch for a battle, did not regard much the minister, Malyavata who was advising him prudently and telling, “Leave Sita. Leave Sita.” Instead, he regarded the crowd of the celestial damsels carrying garlands. (He was destined to die in the battle). 54
Then Rama, learnt from the ministers of Vibhishana, disguised suitably for their purpose, the details of the strategies of defence of the city of the demons, and became eager for the battle. He assigned Nila, the destroyer of the enemies as his deputy against Prahasta at the eastern gate of Lanka, the decorative jewel of the ocean-girdled Earth, Angada, capable of conquering the three worlds, against Mahodara and Mahaparshwa at the south gate, Hanuman, the embodiment of valour against Indrajit at the western gate and Vibhishana, Sugriva and Jambavan against the demon Virupakshas who was in charge of inner military array. He himself along with his brother fixed his bow and assisted by regiments attacked the north gate guarded by Ravana, prepared for the battle. 55
As the gates of Lanka were closed by the servants of Ravana, upon observing Lanka being confounded very much by the monkey-armies, the gates in the capital city of deity of death were wide opened quickly by the guards. 56
At once Rama climbed the Suvela mountain along with Sugriva and looked at Lanka-- Lanka which was the crest jewel of the Mountain Trikuta, Lanka, the pericarp of the lotus, the island Simhala, Lanka the dexterity of construction of Visvakarma, Lanka, the dwelling cave of the lions, the demons, Lanka the garden on peripheries of which were watered by the rivers of tears of the imprisoned ladies of the deities, Lanka the expanses on the out skirts of which were muddy with the ichor-water of the elephants of the rulers of the quarters who came to serve ( Ravana) incessantly. There he also saw Ravana who was stationed on a lofty palace in a particular place, Ravana who was like darkness embodied, Ravana who was being served by the moon along with the stars in the form of a parasol of pure pearls raised by an attendant, Ravana who was splendid was being fanned with a pair of white chowries by two damsels of the deities and was shining like the mountain of collyrium on the both sides of which the floods of Mandakini flow, Ravana with a wide chest with scars of wounds caused by the tusks of the Airavata which were broken upon striking in a number of battles- the scars which created an impression of rows of letters ( proclaiming) the victory over all the worlds, Ravana who was of the complexion of the dark black ‘tamala’ tree and wore a fresh blood-like red garment, Ravana who was like a ( black) cloud surrounded by evening crimson light.57
The monkey-king, Sugriva jumped (upon Ravana) with rage and made the demon-king’s crown uprooted (fallen) and also thereby made Vibhishana’s crown firm. He fought with him (for a while) and knowing that Ravana, who was enraged by that first disgrace, was going to take resort to black magic went back to Rama who was the embodiment of loveable traits. 58
Rama admonished him for his taking such risks. Then, Angada (son of Vali) of great valour, ordered by Rama after consulting with his ministers jumped over the rampart with ease, entered Lanka and fearlessly spoke to the demon-king thus: 59
“I am the son of that monkey king whose lengthy tail got tainted with the smell of your breath. O Ravana knew me as the messenger of Rama who was the death for Khara, Dushana and the like. 60
Alas, O Demon-king, you think that Rama’s wife who is his third eye can be assailed just as a bee of the Ganga, blind with pride, takes the Lord Shiva’s forehead for a lotus.61
Moreover one of the faces of Brahma faded because of the disgrace (you got) from Kartavirya Arjuna, the second one because of insult you received from Bali, and the third one because of the discomfiture you underwent from my father, Vali. In this way, all the four faces of Brahma became faded except one. Don’t make that one also faded away (because of the defeat you are going to suffer at the hands of Rama). Return Sita to Rama. 62
You are again and again boasting about the snatching away Kubera’s Pushpaka, moving the Kailasa Mountain and occupying the cities of the rulers of the quarters. Can you get fame by that much? You have now performed an act befitting a heroic career, by stealing Sita in a hurry, in an un-inhabited forest, putting upon the garb of an ascetic. 63
Why so many words? The great Rama is now anxious to make an offering of your tenth head to the deity of war--the tenth head which was left remaining when you, long ago, cut off your other nine heads while worshipping Lord Shiva. 64
Ravana became enraged by Angada’s words inflicting pain and ordered his servants “Catch him, Catch him”. Angada caught four demons that, according to Ravana’s order, caught him (Angada) by his forearms. (Just as the king of the birds- Garuda, catches the serpents, leapt to the sky and dropped them from there and broke the top of the palace like the breaking of the heads of the enemies. Then, he, finding none that could attack him returned back from Ravana’s court to Rama’s camp. 65
Rama, upon learning about ill behaviour of Ravana, became angry with brows twisted. Then the monkey surrounded the demon-city quickly just as the flames of submarine fire surround the ocean simultaneously at the time of the end of the aeon. 66
Then the war drums beaten by the hands of the demons who got perturbed for a while by the tumultuous roar of the monkeys -heroes floating with
pride, filled the entire space of the sky with frightening sounds, resembling the thunders of the masses of thick clouds. 67
Then, the demon warriors, provoked by the anger and up-surging sounds of the war-drums, which were, as if, tearing the worlds, came out of their houses like the awakened lions from the caves. They did not take notice of the bad omens like the children causing hindrance. They did take into count the ladies with withered faces at the time of departure as if with a desire to roam about with the female deities who came down on aeroplanes. They became occupied in the stopping the elephants coming out of their stalls-the elephants being restless with fear caused by the shower of comets in the form of red glances emanating from their fiery eyes constantly burning with rage. They perplexed the mountains with their roars resounding in the directions-roars doubled with the cries of the jackals. They rode upon blocks of chariots lofty with numerous flags fluttering with the winds from the wide wings of kites. They were frightening with various weapons like darts, spears, mace, clubs and swords strong and sharp like the large teeth of Death and were like the peaks of the Vindhya Mountains covered with hordes of pythons. They wore dark black iron armour and were like the copies of the dooms-day clouds. They were like the personifications of the dooms day night. They were like the transformations of the Kali Age. They were frightening even to Death itself. They entered the battlefield uttering battle cries (war slogans). They caused confusion to the monkey armies by their showers of far-flying arrows like the clouds raining upon the hills. 68
The anxious deities who wished success for their side watched the terrible battle the monkeys and the demons in which the weapons (thrown by the demons) were cast away the (monkeys with their) finger nails, the maces (of the demons) were broken by the trees (with which the monkeys hit them), the clubs (of the demons) were pulverised by the stones (thrown by the monkeys) and the elephants (in the army of the demons) were crushed under the mountain peaks (cast by the monkeys). 69
As evening approached gradually the sun set like the fire of valour of the demon-heroes, which was extinguished by he monkey heroes. The evening
glow spread in the distant quarters like the flood of the streams of blood flowing from the throat channels smashed by weapons. The stars shone in the sky like the showers of pears emanating from the huge heads of the elephants torn by the nails of the victorious monkeys. Darkness spread the whole world like the dust rising from the earth trodden by the feet of chariots, elephants, horses and foot soldiers that moved fast with the haste of battle. The (chakravaka) birds that got separated from their beloveds became like the night-wanderers i.e., demons. The lotuses got enclosed in the like the weapons which were enclosed by the sheaths in the hands of the demons. The lake of night lilies became delightful like the army of Srirama. 70
The great hero, Meghanada soothed the minds of the demons by discharging showers of arrows on the monkeys and inflicted pain to them in the battle as a cloud to the swans. 71
In the battle that ensued, Angada, in a distressed the minds of the demons by destroying the strong chariot of Meghanada with a huge tree just as Indra destroys a cluster of mountains with his sharp thunderbolt. 72
Then Meghanada hid himself in the sky with his magic-power and aiming at Rama and Lakshmana showered serpent shaped arrows with rage. 73
The arrows terrible and cruel like Rahu bound Ramachandra along with Lakshmana as Rahu bounds the moon (who has mark). 74
As Meghanada, the conqueror of Indra, returned to the city, Sita seated in the Pushpaka by the orders of Ravana saw Rama and Lakshmana (in that miserable state) and wept. But by that time, the serpents slipped away with the winds of Suparna’s (Garuda’s) wings and the brothers shone brightly like the sun and the moon released from Rahu after an eclipse. 75
In the fierce battle that ensued between the two sides, Hanuman, with the strength of his mighty arms, tore into two Dhurmukha and Prakampana. Angada also smashed Vajradanshtra with a hill. So also, Nila killed Prahasta. All this was related to Ravana by the demons. 76
Ravana became enraged because of the death of his generals. Eager to fight by himself, he ascended a lofty chariot and resembled a cloud endowed with
a colourful rainbow on the peak of Sumeru mountain. He was followed and surrounded by the four types of regiments and appeared as if he was accompanied by the whole of the city of Lanka. He caused deafness to Adisesha’s eyes (a poetic convention that a snake can hear with only its eyes and not with ears) with the terrible tumultuous cries of victory of his followers filling the whole universe. He passed through the city gateway, entered the battlefield and saw before him the monkey armies. 77
Upon seeing Ravana, the conqueror of the ten-quarter rulers, in the battlefield, not only Rama’s head shook in his praise but the top of his right shoulder also throbbed at the sight of the target of arrows. 78
Then Ravana stepped into the battlefield baffling the quarter-elephants with his proud roars, which filled the spaces between the quarters. He thus perturbed the whole monkey army like the primordial boar, which perturbed the ocean. 79
The demon king tossed away Sugriva, the monkey-king who was enraged for the attack upon his armies and was raining hillocks, Hanuman who hit strongly with his very hard fist, Nila who leapt with ease upon his (Ravana’s) banner and crown and all the monkey armies and commanders with great force like the wind, which blows away lumps of cotton. He also hit in the chest with a great weapon called ‘ Sakthi’ Lakshmana who attacked him raining incessant showers of arrows. 80
Rama simultaneously aroused the heroic and pathetic sentiments and caused delight and sorrow to the monkey armies by flooding his younger brother with tears and the enemy with arrows. 81
By the time Lakshmana shed the swoon and emerged in the battlefield to crush the enemies, Rama put Ravana to shame by defeating him. But he (Rama) spared his (Ravana’s) life with pity and stopped discharging arrows. 82
Having thus suffered the first defeat in the battle, Ravana returned to his city trembling and with faces pale like the daytime lights. 83
Then Ravana some how got Kumbhakarna awakened from his slumber even though the time was not due? He (Kumbhakarna), obeying the kings’
command went to the battle field which proved to be his house of slumber from which there can be no further awakening (i.e., death) 84
Angada exhorted the monkey armies, which upon seeing collyrium-mountain-like Kumbhakarna approaching dangling his spear in the sky like the speared Rudra bent upon destroying the worlds were fleeing in all directions with their natural superior valour of the army dwindled, like the clouds shattered by the wind. 85
“ O monkeys, this is after all a frightening puppet of the demons. Let not there be this fear-born nature, which we never suffered from. 86
The monkeys, responding to the exhortation of Angada, readied themselves for the battle and returned. They attacked Kumbhakarna wanton like Airavata, and showered with rocks and trees on him just as the dooms day gales storm the Vindhya Mountain. 87
The blossomed trees cast (by the monkeys) became lost in the sweated chest of the demon like the powdered perfumes of clothes. The rocks thrown (by the monkeys) also dashed against his shoulders and immediately reverted back causing misery and injury to the throwers (the monkeys themselves). 88
He (Kumbhakarna) set forth waving the trident emitting flames. He, with playful recklessness strides caused the battlefield sink down. He crushed down Nila, Rshabha and Sarabha, carried away Gandhamedhana and blocked Gavaksha. 89
Sugriva, the mighty armed, consoled the monkey army, which disheartened by their natural fear and fickle-mindedness, took refuge with Rama. He then did a strange battle dumping the enemy with hills all over. But he himself fell upon the ground unconscious hit by the rocks thrown by the demon, like a mountain struck down by the thunderbolt. 90
The demons rejoiced saying “the dishonour done to our king Ravana by Vali is now erased” as Kumbhakarna set off to the city carrying Sugriva in his cage-like arms. 91
He (Kumbhakarna) was made equal in form to Surpanakha by the nail-tips of Sugriva who raised his head, after regaining consciousness with the nursing
rendered by the cool breeze fragrant with the variegated blossoms. The terrible shaped Kumbhakarna jumped over the rampart playfully. Then he, not finding Sugriva whom he wanted to kill for having deformed him (because he (Sugriva) had meanwhile escaped from his clutches) returned back to the battlefield. He, with his round large and rolling eye-balls devouring (due to intoxication) his own people also just as his opponents approached Rama (and ignoring Lakshmana) throwing rocks. 92
Rama smashed the rock with a crescent shaped arrow charged upon him arrows that destroyed Vali, Marica and Khara. However, finding them go futile, he aimed at him the Vayavya and Aindra missiles capable of causing widowhood to the enemies ladies. 93
As the limbs of the demons were torn away by Rama’s missiles, first one of his (Kumbhakarna) arms fell among the ocean of enemy armies like the Mandhara Mountain. Another arm fell in the ocean and appeared like a second bridge (built across the ocean). His head, cut off, appeared in the sky like a fourth peak of the Trikuta Mountain (which has three peaks). 94
Ravana understood the death of Kumbhakarna by hearing the gay tumultuous uproar of the monkeys. With a downcast face, he ordered his sons Narantaka, Atikaya and Trishiras with the brothers Mahodara and Mahaparswa as their aides. They obediently followed their father’s command and entered the battlefield, which proved to be their place of death. 95
Then an enraged battle ensued between the two forces, though with faces faded- a battle, which could fulfill the desires of the celestial ladies, a battle the sort of which was never seen before by the sage who is curious about battles (Narada). 96
Angada killed Narantaka who was (vanaranthaka) killing the monkeys. Surantaka was also killed by Hanuman like Purantaka who was killed by Purantaka i.e., Lord Shiva. 97.
Later, as Mahodara was killed by Nila, of unequal valour in war, as Trishiras got his head crushed by Hanuman, and as commanders Mahaparshwa etc., also were killed, Atikaya, like a mass of darkness in demon-form, overtaken
by unbearable sorrow and anger, came to the battle-field and did a surprising battle with Lakshmana, like Vritra with Indra. 98
He, Lakshmana fought with him for a long time. Then he learnt from the words of the wind-god that he (Atikaya) cannot be killed (with ordinary weapons) because of the boon of Lord Shiva. So he charged the missile of Brahma. Atikaya’s head cut off by it, rose up into sky and caused to the worlds a great terror of Rahu. 99
Then Indrajit consoled his bereaved father and, bearing the burden of the war, came endowed with a bow and a chariot and attacked Rama and Lakshmana along with his armies. 100
Having entered the battlefield, he, to fulfill his desire of conquering the enemies, kept the demons around his chariot for its protection, and satisfied the right-side-flamed fire-god with oblations. He, then, armed with various weapons obtained by the charms, disappeared, flew up in the sky hit the monkeys in vital parts with sharp-pointed arrows and made them helpless like a hunter hunting wild animals. 101
He made Rama along with Lakshmana confounded in the mind and devoid of strength just as the severe summer makes a lake of muddy base and devoid of living creatures. Then he went home slowly. 102
When the great Indrajit discharged a shower of arrows and went home, leaving behind the wounded Sugriva lustreless and Rama with reduced brightness- when the cloud having showered an arrow like rain and passed forward, leaving behind it the dimmed lustre born of the sun, and lessened pleasant brightness of the moon- then the army of the monkeys had a life shivering with a glowless Nala, a shiningless Kumuda, and almost dead Nila and Utpala- then the river had rippling waters with the glowless Nala aquatic grass, the shine less white water-lilies and faded blue water-lilies.103
When the great Indrajit (compared to a cloud) discharged a shower of arrows (discharged arrow like-shower) and went home (passed on) leaving behind him a wounded and lustreless Sugriva (dimmed sun-born-light) less bright Rama (lessened pleasant brightness of the moon), the army of the monkeys
(river) had a life trembling (a rippling water) with a glowless Nala (nala-grass), shiningless Kumuda (white lilies) and almost dead Nila and utpala (blue water-lilies). 103
As Hanuman, as per the directions of Jambavan, brought the mountain of herbs with ease, the army got relieved from the arrows and became active. The minds of the scholars and deities (well-wishers of Rama) also got relieved of the poignant grief. 104
Ravana heard that his city was set on flames by the forest-fire-like monkey army, which regained its natural strength. Then, according to his directions, Akampana (one who never shakes) who could shake the worlds came out of the city like an unaided lion which comes out of the den. But both he and Prajangha, who slew crowds of monkeys, became locusts in the fire of Angada’s valour. So also the great charioteers, Sonita and Yupaksha also were slain by Mainda and Dwinda. Having heard and seen all this, Kumbha and Nikumbha, both great heroes, became fiercely agitated with anger and impatience. They gave a surprising fight to Sugriva and Hanuman, just as Subahu and Maricha gave to Rama and Lakshmana. 105
Upon seeing that Kumbha was struck down to earth by the monkey-king, Nikumbha, unable to suffer separation from his brother, got slain by Hanuman and reached the Kumbhas (pitches) of the breast of the deity damsel (nymph Rambha etc.,) (He also died). 106
Then Makaraksha, son of Khara, was called for by the enraged Ravana and entrusted with the carrying on the battle. He came with an enormous army with great fanfare. Rama’s arrow sent him to his father’s presence, treating him, even an opponent as an ally--the arrow being equipped with feathers. 107
Indrajit, son of Ravana, took his father’s orders by the head (obeying to his father’s orders) and went to the battlefield. There the great hero gave oblations to the fire-god, got great missiles, rose to the skies by; his magical power, charged arrows from there, struck the armies (of the monkeys) and, feeling Rama’s anger, at once went back to Lanka highly terrified. 108
There, the deceitful Indrajit came out from the back door and slaughtered an illusory Sita with his sword in the presence of Hanuman. He (Hanuman) became confounded in his mind by this sudden happening, taking the false to be real. He fought for a long time but, being despondent, retired from the fighting. Then Indrajit went to Nikumbhila, in an effort to slay the enemies, and immediately began a most wonderful sacrifice. 109
Rama, upon hearing these bad tidings from Hanuman, who had returned from the battlefield, became heart-broken like swan dwelling in the Manasa Lake, struck by a thunderbolt. Lakshmana consoled the grief stricken prince. He sighed piteously and, in spite of his being the lord of the world, wept like a destitute. 110
“ This noble woman was born in the Janaka’s sacrifice from Goddess Earth like a flame from the Arani-fire-creating wood. She became the daughter-in-law to the Manu’s race. Even then, due to misfortune, Rama has been made a widower. 111
How can this ocean of grief be crossed, because, here, even the efforts of Hanuman are bound to become fruitless? Nala is not capable of constructing a new abridge (over this ocean of grief). Even the fire of missile cannot cross it.” 112
Vibhishana who was aware of the various kinds of mischief of the demons approached Rama who was lamenting like this and said to him, “ Why do you feel miserable with out reason. Know that this is only an illusion created by Indrajit to perform his sacrifice unobstructed. Please get bold.” Having said so, he at once laid seizes to Nikumbhila along with the armies keeping Lakshmana in the forefront. 113
Disturbed by the din of the monkeys, Indrajit, even without completing the sacrifice, came out like a lion from a mountain cave, and began fighting. 114.
The cunning Indrajit shattered the monkeys from the battlefield just as a wind shatters fluffs of cotton. 115
Then, Lakshmana, mounted upon the shoulders of Hanuman, over-powered Indrajit with a shower of arrows just as Indra over-powered the demon
Jambha-- Indrajit who seated in a chariot was causing commotion in the armies and attacking like the terrible dooms-day death-god. 116
The two had a terrible fight in which enraging prides excelled, excessive boastings were predominated, armours fell down in pieces, and missiles were countered with missiles, terror reigned engulfing the three worlds and victory and defeat could not be foreseen. 117
Lakshmana released hundreds of shafts hard like the Vajra from the bowstring and made Indrajit, charioteer-less. 118
Indrajit became enraged and acted in a way proper for a mischief-monger, fitting for a valorous person, worthy of the son of demon-king, suitable to the conqueror of Indra. 119
In this way, the fight continued for three days. 120
The villain Indrajit charged a mighty missile against Vibhishana who also attacked him. Lakshmana cut it off with a crescent shaped shaft, and unable to endure the enemy’s arrogance set off an in-fallible missile named after Indra. 121
First the blazing missile fell, and then Indrajit’s head together with the helmet, the pure shower of flowers by the angles and the tears of the female demons fell one after another in succession. 122
Upon hearing the death of his son Indrajit, Ravana’s all faces became faded with grief. He sighed; shed tears, lamented and hissed. His faces became red with rage. The eyebrows became curved. He bit the fleshy lip and laughed loudly with excitement. 123
Then, as his sons Indrajit etc., lost their lives, brothers Kumbhakarna etc, were killed, ministers Prahasta etc., were destroyed, commanders like Virupaksha etc., have been slain, and the whole army having become disordered and scattered and the city of Lanka resounding with the piteous weeping of women, he wanted to kill Sita, the daughter of the Earth and wife of the chief of race of Ikshvakus, but was dissuaded by the minister who was by his side. Then determined to conquer Rama, he entered the battlefield by a chariot driven by the charioteer. 124
Though alone, he appeared to be accompanied by his kinsmen because of his number of heads and hands, in which he wore various weapons like the maces, spears, sticks, bow, sword, noose etc., 125
The demon-king by hitting at the heads of the monkey-chiefs with his sword, appeared to be bestowing upon the monkey chiefs the divine courtesans denoting, “This is for you, and this is for you” 126
Mean while Lakshmana whose anger was roused by the commotion created in the armies of the monkeys, felled down the banner of Ravana with is sharp arrows and cut off the bow with a half-moon-shaped missile with surprising dexterity of the hand. Ravana made him swoon like the moon eclipsed for a moment by a furiously cast ‘Shakti’. 127
Rama became grief-stricken at heart by seeing his brother wounded by the blow of the ‘Shakti’. He then made his bow round i.e., drew it vehemently, Brahma, i.e. Fate also rounded off the writing on Ravana’s forehead. (I.e. denoting the end of his life.) 128
Rama simultaneously made his army fell grief and joy by showering tears on his brother and arrows on Ravana. 129
As the ferocious Rama with his marvellous rounded bow rained arrows upon the enemies and Ravana became stupefied, none did return from the battle, or none of the divine damsels went without obtaining an amour. 130
He (Rama) also got his wish fulfilled by having the embrace of his brother who was revived to life by the medicine of the mountain brought by Hanuman. With increased fervour for the battle, Rama, armoured as he was with horripulations, got a huge chariot brought by the charioteer of Indra and armour by the kindness of Indra. 131
A seemingly incessant and endless battle ensued between Rama and Ravana the valour of both of whose became evident by getting a worthy opponent, who got horripulations upon getting strokes of missiles, who were full of eulogy for each other’s bravery, who excelled in risks to life and who took rest only when swooned. 132
A battle royal took place between Rama and Ravana who were like Indra and Vritrasura and who discharged upon each other divine missiles incessantly, a battle in which the arrows were destroyed (before hitting their targets) the arrows which were in search of (i.e., were aimed at) the opponents vital parts, a battle in which the bow strings were cut off, a battle in which both the opponents were guided by their natural and unstinted qualities of valour, a battle in which the horses of the chariots were over-eager to participate in the battle, a battle in which the war-chariots ( of Ravana) became broken, a battle in which a victory un-dented was desired, a battle in which fame alone is considered as wealth. 133
Rama’s hand, which seemed to be possessed by action, was viewed at by the world for a long time because of its (the hand’s) swiftness in drawing the arrow from the quiver, fixing it on the string, and discharging it. 134
The half-spoken heroic exclamation uttered by Ravana’s head that was cut off by Rama’s arrows was completed by a new head, which instantly rose up in its place. Though the magnificent fight of both the archers (Rama) and the cheat (Ravana) were equal, Ravana felt ashamed in the battle upon looking at his own cut off heads. 135
Because of the bubbles in streams of blood caused by Ravana’s missiles and visible upon the armours of (given by) Indra, Rama was mistook by the plane-farers as Indra himself with his thousand eyes reddened with anger. 136
Seven days elapsed unnoticed because of their immersion in battle by Rama and Ravana who were engaged in incessantly destroying each other’s missiles with counter missiles- that of fire with that of water, that of a serpent with that of the eagle, that of wind with that of a serpent, that of darkness with that of the sun, that of the demon with that of Indra and that of Vishnu with that of Shiva. 137
Rama (husband of Sita), though pleased with the tug-of-war-like battle, remembering his distressed beloved wife, cut off, never to come up again along with the missiles of all the worlds, Ravana’s heads which were again and again rising in spite of being cut off (with ordinary weapons and minor missiles) with the fiery missile of Brahma which needs no secondary usage. 138
As the king of demons fell down, the deities whose aspirations were fulfilled rained a shower of flowers. But the praises was not of Rama but of Kama (Manmatha, the Cupid) who made Surpanakha lovelorn. 139
Then Vibhishana approached Ravana who was embracing the earth, and reclining upon an arrow-bed, had the quiver for the pillow and fell down upon the earth and, aggrieved by brotherly affection, wept for a long time saying ‘ I am very mean’. 140
O Ravana, I am stained for life-I who has as a villain, discarded you, a brother and a kinsmen who equally shared our joy and misery, I who was the cause for the massacre of the whole race, I who followed vile tactics. 141
“Kumbhakarna alone who sacrificed his life to protect that of his elder brother can be called a younger brother. I was the cause of your death, for the sake of my life. I do not know how fate endures me. 142.
As he was wailing thus, Mandodari, having come to know about the happening, came out of the harem, along with other women who were like female elephants who lost their mate-elephants, and finding her lord Ravana, who was lying down in the midst of the battle-field like the mount Mahendra struck down by the thunderbolt, fell down like a creeper bereft of support and cried piteously like a she-Kurangi bird whose beloved had been shot down by a fowler. 143
“ O lord, What a pity that you like an ordinary person are, by the mighty fate, now made to go the same capital of Yama (the death-god) which you have here before visited in the course of your conquest festivities. 144
I was proud that my father was a chief of the demon race, that my husband was the conqueror of the three worlds and that my son has won Indra. Alas now that I am mocked by the fate. 145
What act of virtue is this that Rama who is proficient in kingly virtues and who is born in the righteous race of Ikshvaku, is beginning with Vali, killing the elder brother and coronating the younger brother.146
Alas, Lanka was burnt by the fire of Hanuman’s tail and you are now burnt by the fire of Sita’s chastity. Then how is it that I am now alive and the fire of even this severe grief is not able to kill me? 147
So, I shall now enter the fire and follow you (to the other world) just as the sun’s light follows him in the evening, just as the moon light follows the moon and just as the lightening follows the clouds, and thereby console my soul which is being incessantly burnt by the fire of separation (from the husband). 148
Vibhishana, following Rama’s orders, gently took aside the sister-in-law (Mandodari) who was weeping thus piteously, performed the obsequies of the demon-king as ordained by the sastras and approached him (Rama) with increasing grief. Then Rama consecrated Vibhishana with the waters brought from all the holy places to make him the lord of the entire demon-kingdom, just as the cloud showers water upon the trees, which was scorched by the forest-fire. 149
Vibhishana, after coronation, having got the kingship from Rama, appeared more lustrous as the disk of the moon increases, nourished by the nectarine rays of the sun. 150.
Rama’s heart became dense with the sentiments of joy and grief upon seeing Sita who was brought by the faithful Vibhishana-- Sita who was, an ideal for women for her noble character and beauty, Sita who was abducted by Ravana. 151
Then, Sita who was the presiding deity for all chaste ladies, being the treasure of pure and holy character, like Arundhati, saluted the Lord Brahma and entered fire for the confidence of her husband (the primordial person now in human form) in the presence of Indra and other deities just as the disk of the moon enters the sun only to rise again.152
Sita of pure character, Sita, the daughter of king Janaka entered fire for proving purity. But the fire god himself got purified from the sins accrued for long by his contact with unholy things. 153
Rama found that Sita was of pure character because of her safe survival from the fire, and received her just as the sun again receives the radiance at dawn. 154
Then Rama with a happy heart, bowed to the great hero Dasaratha who was seated in a divine aerial car and was shown by Brahma as mark of paying
tribute to him (Rama) and obeyed his (Dasaratha’s) order by boarding the aerial car belonging to Kubera in order to go to Ayodhya together with Lakshmana and Sita accompanied by the happy monkeys who were brought back to life by Indra’s boon and glancing kindly at Vibhishana who was chatting with Sugriva. 155
Having boarded the Pushpaka, Raqma spoke to Sita by way of showing her his familiar battlefields near Lanka, the deep sea, and the bridge constructed over it. 156
“ O Sita (young lady), as our diamond car is getting up and up, so the sky is becoming more and more expansive. The monkeys finding the vast sea just as puddle on earth are showing it to Hanuman and laughing at him (for his greatly canvassed feat of crossing it). 157
Beloved Sita, the speed of our car is surpassing even that of Garutman, the son Vinata. 158
I am not able to look at even backwardly and describe those spots, which I find a lot ahead and want to show you. 159
My beloved Sita, look. This is Rshyamuka; this is the lake Pampa; this is the place where Kabandha was crushed; this is the place of fight with Kaharta etc., this is over arboreal dwelling (hut); this is the hunting place of the mischievous deer; this is Godavari; this is Agastya’s dwelling; this is the place of slaughter of Viradha; this is the abode of the great sage Atri; this is the Chitrakuta”. Telling thus, he quickly reached the peaceful and holy hermitage of sage Bharadwaja in the precincts of the River Ganga and again spoke to Sita. 160
“ Look Sita, The serpent is happily swallowing the exhaled breath of the sleeping peacock and the deer is treating his itch with the lion’s claws.” 161
There, he received the richly varied hospitality of Bharadwaja and covering a very lengthy way, approached Ayodhya. Viewing Bharata advancing forward with brotherly affection, he desired to descend from the aerial car-- Bharata who was obeying a very highly sacred vow of penance, Bharata who was full of natural devotion, Bharata, who was, having received the advance
message of Rama’s arrival from Hanuman, set forward (to receive Rama) along with Vasishsta and other ministers who were shedding tear of joy. 162.
“O daughter of Earth, as the car is descending from the sky knowing my wish, so, the earth, it seems, is coming upwards to receive you with affection.” 163
Speaking to Sita in this way, Rama, holding the supporting hand of Sugriva gracefully and slowly got down from the car along the flight of steps shown by Vibhishana. 164
Rama raised up and embraced Bharata who, presenting him with the pair of the diamond footwear, fell upon his feet instantly. Also, observing his ( Bharata’s) body famished with penance, he (Rama) went on caressing him (Bharata) affectionately for long. 165
Bharata rejoiced by embracing Lakshmana who was also equally famished like his elder brother (Rama) with grief. He (Lakshmana) also rejoiced his (Bharata’s) embrace-- Bharata who was disdainful for the easily got kingdom, Bharata who was firm in his natural trait of devotion. 166
Bharata also, together with Satrighna, who was engaged in the manly activity (of ruling the kingdom in Rama’s name) and who has also bowed the supreme person (Rama), bowed to the venerable Sita and paid appropriate respects and honors to Sugriva, Vibhishana etc., along with their women folk. He then led Rama respectably from the car to his hermitage. Rama showed his respects to Vasishta, spoke formally with the ministers, and favored the citizens with his kind glances. 167
There, Rama, along with Sita and Lakshmana, bowed to the anxiously affectionate Kausalya, the exceedingly grief-stricken Kaikeyi and the boundless-love-laden Sumitra respectively. He enjoyed profound joy, being embraced every moment by the glances of the women folk of the harem who were anxiously waiting for having a look at him, just as the moon is embraced by the tides of the ocean. 168
Then, the band of monkeys brought holy waters from all directions swiftly for performing the coronation of Rama according to the directions of the teacher, Vasishta--so swiftly that mount Mahendra became perturbed. 169
Rama, having been coronated by the ministers reverentially, got himself embellished, again got into the chariot and set off towards Ayodhya. Bharata also got his desire fulfilled. 170
In this way, Rama, with Lakshmana and Satrighna well-versed in serving, waving the fans, with Bharata engaged in servile duties holding high pure white parasol of pearls, got himself well tidied, and entered Ayodhya followed by the demons and monkey chiefs who were mounted upon chariots and elephants- Ayodhya which was reverberating with the clatter of the gem-anklets and waist-bands of the citizen-ladies who were engaged in the customary showering of white grains of rice and pop-corn, Ayodhya which was resounding with the blowing of the auspicious musical instruments, Ayodhya which was crowded with the happy citizens guided by the timely praises of the panegyrists, Ayodhya the streets of which are decorated with the festoons of the blue water lilies that are the glances of the young damsels moving around the windows of the road-side mansions. 171
The triumphant Rama, thus, returned to Ayodhya and ruled over the happy world with fame and splendour for long served by his brothers, establishing the beloved friends like Sugriva in their respective positions, and enjoying pleasures together with Sita. 172
May this sixth book, the continuation of the compilation of five books written by Bhoja long ago, now written by Lakshmana Suri, proficient in all the arts like literature etc., the moon born from the ocean, namely, Gangadhara, an ornament to the village Sanagara, son of Gangambika, stay on for ever. 173
Thus ends the poetic composition named Champu Ramayana written by Bhoja and Lakshmana.
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